Human Animal Relationship

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Applied Animal Behaviour Science 109 (2008) 105–127 www.elsevier.com/locate/applanim Review A preliminary model of human–animal relationships in the zoo Geoff Hosey Psychology & Life Sciences, University of Bolton, Deane Road, Bolton BL3 5AB, UK Accepted 19 April 2007 Available online 21 May 2007 Abstract The concept of the human–animal relationship (HAR) is widely used in farm animal research to describe the outcome of the different qualities and quantities of interaction between stockpersons and the animals in their care. Thus, negative, positive or neutral HARs may result from the effect of mostly negative (e.g. rough handling), neutral (e.g. no handling) or positive (e.g. gentle handling) interactions. In this paper the concept is applied to zoo animals in an attempt to provide a model not only of HARs between zoo animals and keepers, but also between zoo animals and unfamiliar people, primarily the visiting public. Behavioural responses of animals to zoo visitors are inconsistent both within and between taxa, and the history of interactions the individual animal has experienced, and hence the HARs it has developed, may be one of the variables that leads to this inconsistency. The model starts, like the farm animal models, with the animals’ fear of humans, which is itself dependent upon species. The subsequent history of interactions the animal experiences, both with familiar and unfamiliar people, then determines the animal’s HAR, which in turn influences the way the animal responds to people. There are currently insufficient data to test the model, but predictions of the model are identified here which could be used to test it. # 2007 Elsevier B.V. Open access under CC BY-NC-ND license. Keywords: Keepers; Visitors; Interactions; Human–animal relationships Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HAR in farmed
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