STAGE 2 Skin breaks open, wears away and forms an ulcer. STAGE 3 The sore worsens and extends beneath the skin surface, forming a small crater. There may be no pain at this stage due to nerve damage. The risk of tissue death and infection are high. STAGE 4 Pressure sores progress, with extensive damage to deeper tissues (muscles, tendons and bones).
The skin then breaks and pressure ulcers form 2. The parts of the body most at risk of developing pressure ulcers are in direct contact with a supporting surface, such as a bed or a wheelchair. These might be: * Shoulders or shoulder blades * Elbows * Back of the head * Rims of ears * Knees, ankles, heels or toes * Spine * Tail bone (the small bone at the bottom of the spine) 3. Some of the factors that can put an individual at risk of developing pressure sores are: * Poor nutrition or hydration * A health condition that limits the blood supply(diabetes and peripheral arterial disease) making the skin vulnerable to bruising and damage * Poor mobility * Age * Urine or bowel incontinence 4. By using incorrect moving and handling techniques one might put residents at risk.
Sources of moisture on the skin from urine, stool, or perspiration can irritate the skin. Poor hygiene , not washing regularly or drying properly Poor nutrition and/or dehydration. Bed sores are more likely to form when the skin is not properly nourished. 1.4 Friction and shearing can occur when a patient or resident is pulled up in bed or in the chair. These
This complication can occur during the surgery and one or more nerves can be affected. When nerves become damaged, they can cause a decrease in the patient's sensation and ability to move. If an autonomic nerve is damaged, it can cause lung or heart problems or, in severe cases, death. Paralysis Spinal-cord surgery is a very delicate procedure and a surgery-related injury or infection can lead to paralysis. This complication of spinal cord surgery is rare, but possible.
The surface of the skin can ulcerate which may become infected. Eventually subcutaneous and deeper tissues are damaged. Besides the heel, other areas commonly involved are the skin over the buttocks, sacrum, ankles hips and other bony sites of the body. There are 4 stages in relation to the skin breaking down which causes pressure sores, it’s important that the correct staging is done because this
These might be; shoulders or shoulder blades, elbows, back of the head, rims of ears, knees, ankles, heels or toes, spine, tail bone and buttocks. Some of the factors that can put an individual at risk of developing pressure sores are poor nutrition or hydration, a health condition that limits the blood supply(diabetes and peripheral arterial disease) making the skin vulnerable to bruising and damage, poor mobility, age or urine or bowel incontinence. By using incorrect moving and handling techniques you are putting individuals at risk of damaging their skin. This can happen when individuals are moved into chairs as they may be unable to get out of them therefore leaving the individual sat on the same area causing
Cuts and Bruises – Cuts and bruises may occur while in the vehicle such as bumping legs and arms on chairs and door if the resident is a bit unbalanced and while going to the toilets on doors. Asthma attacks – asthma attacks may occur due to different surroundings, different foods, smells, dry wind and cold air these things could always be a problem. Aii: What procedure you should take if any of the above happen? Travel Sickness – If someone is suffering from travel sickness then you should have a sick bucket or sick bag in reach and lots of fresh air, if they are already aware they suffer then we could apply medicated skin patches or motion sickness wrist bands. Falls – If an individual falls you should act quickly to assess the situation and cheek them for any serious damage.
Back and neck problems, accidents or injury leading to long term disability, arthritis and any other condition affecting the joints, amputation, fibromyalgia, multiple sclerosis, partial or total paralysis, cerebral palsy and head injury. Other conditions such as respiratory and cardiac diseases, epilepsy, diabetes, cancer and AIDS can all have an impact on co-ordination, dexterity, strength, speed and stamina. 1.3 Outline the effects that reduced mobility may have on an individual’s wellbeing Each difficulty will vary greatly from person to person even if they have the same condition/disability. Most effects will include: • Fatigue • Drowsiness • Chronic weakness • Memory difficulties • Difficulties with studying for extended periods of time without rest/breaks/movement • Poor concentration levels and speed of processing information. 1.4 Describe the benefits of maintaining and improving mobility If you don't keep a person mobile, they will become weak and bedridden.
Doctor’s may also be able to find problems with your memory and concentration. In stage four you have a moderate cognitive decline. A medical interview at this stage should detect symptoms of forgetfulness of recent events. You may also experience moodiness. You can also have trouble planning events, or paying bills.
Poorly adjusted mobility aids lead to friction. Friction and tearing forces are created by repetitive movement, such as sliding down in the bed. Certain patients who are higher at risk than others, such as obese or elderly patients should use a hoist to avoid friction. Regularly changing position or moving helps prevent pressure sores developing in a vulnerable area or to relieve already