For example Black, Pakistani and Bangladeshi students do worst compared to Indians and Chinese who do best. White students are very close to the average but this is because they are the great majority of the school population .Among black and working class students, girls do better than boys, and among Asians boys do better than girls. Working class black girls do better than working class white girls. Many sociologists argue that ethnic differences in achievement can best be explained by looking at factors inside the school and outside the school. As Item A suggests ‘Afro-Caribbean boys were often expected to behave badly and they received a disproportionate amount of negative teacher attention’ that teachers have lower expectations of black boys.
Autism is a developmental disability that causes problems with social skills and communication. Autism can be mild or severe. It is different for every person. It is also known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and can include high and low functioning and verbal / nonverbal conditions along the spectrum as well as a milder form known as Asperger syndrome, and childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (referred to as PDD-NOS). Although ASD varies significantly in character and severity, it occurs in all ethnic and socioeconomic groups and affects every age group.
‘an incomplete or state of arrested development of the mind’, an individual with a learning disability will have significant impairment of intellectual function/social and adaptive. Stages of learning disability can range from mild, moderate, severe and profound. (3) Social and medical model of responsibility are as follows i.e. person-centred approach; medical; inclusivity; community integration and social. (4) It is stated that according to the BILD British Institute of Learning Disability it is estimated that1,198,000 people in England have learning disabilities that’s 2% of the general population.
The main problem is that in most cases family members share the same environment so it can be argued that it was the environment that caused them to equally learn the behaviour instead of the genetic relationship. Twin studies offer more reliable data but unfortunately not many twin studies have been conducted. Also the lack in empirical research indicates that there is very little support for the genetic influence in anxiety disorders. Another explanation for phobias is the neurological explanation which is based on the functioning of the autonomic nervous system. Research has shown that people who develop phobias are those who generally maintain a high level of physiological arousal which makes them sensitive to the external environment.
However, not enough is known to disentangle the impact of contextual factors that often accompany divorce (e.g., financial pressures and marital conflict) from the impact of the divorce itself. The Impact of Divorce vs. Marital Conflict Divorce: Recent research utilizing more sophisticated methodology than previous studies shows that while children of divorced parents overall have more adjustment problems than children of intact families, the differences between these two groups is smaller and less pronounced than previously believed. In fact, the majority of children of divorce fall within the normal range of adjustment on standardized measures. While it is often difficult to isolate the myriad of factors that impact children of divorce, research has established that they are at a higher risk for adjustment problems than children from intact families. For example, divorced children experience less financial security, lower academic achievement, more alcohol and cigarette use, and lower rates of employment as young adults.
Severity of motor (involuntary movement) and phonic (involulntary noise) abnormalities usually peak early with a reduction of symptoms noticed around age 20 for most people, but severe cases may start in adulthood (Leckman, 2002). Tourette's syndrome is associated with a variety of other mental health disorders including depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and other anxiety disorders. TS are more common in males than females at a ratio of 4 to 1 and more common in Caucasian than African American or Hispanics (Enwefa, 2006). Currently there is no official number of people with TS, but it is estimated that about 100,000 Americans have it (Crews, 2000). There is no known cause of TS, but researcher's have focused on the possibility of chemical imbalance causing abnormal neurotransmission of brain signals (Kozarek, 1992).
Sam Drafts Khalid Salah Allied Health Sciences Notes on Angelmans Syndrome Angelman syndrome is a ‘neuro-genetic’ disorder that happens in one in 15,000 births. People usually think of Angelman syndrome as autism but it is a lot different. Characteristics of the disorder include developmental delay, lack of speech, seizures, and walking and balance problems. People with Angelman syndrome will require life-long help. Angelman syndrome is a very complex genetic disorder that mostly affects the nervous system.
This is supported by the Swann Report which suggests that social class accounts for at least 50% of achievement differences. However, Gillborn and Mirza suggest that social class isn’t as influential as ethnicity as even Black pupils from middle class backgrounds still perform poorly compared to others of the same class. Thus, underachievement cannot be primarily due to home background factors so others must account for the
“It occurs in 10 percent of people who have a first-degree relative with the disorder, such as a parent, brother, or sister. People who have second-degree relatives (aunts, uncles, grandparents, or cousins) with the disease also develop schizophrenia more often than the general population” (Schizophrenia, 2009). There isn’t just one gene that is associated with schizophrenia, but scientists believe there are several genes that are linked to the disorder. “Other recent studies suggest that schizophrenia may result in part when a certain gene that is key to making important brain chemicals malfunctions. This problem may affect the part of the brain involved in developing higher functioning skills” (Schizophrenia, 2009).
Autism Spectrum Disorder Erick Mojica Florida National University Professor Hortacio Nunez December 08, 2014 Abstract ASD formally known as Autism Spectrum Disorder is a disorder found in many children. It is mainly found more in males than in females. This disorder affects kids at a very young age and impairs both social and communication skills in the brain. In this paper, you will read the signs and symptoms and even the treatments and therapies these children can take. Don’t get me wrong, those these treatments will help the children cope and maybe even understand their disorder it will not cure it or take it away.