He establishes a multiracial kingdom in which he sets to establish a unity of common Greek culture. Caesar Augustus was also known as a good military commander. Following Caesar’s death, Augustus along with Mark Antony and Lepidus, defeated Caesar’s murderers in 42 BC at Philippi. After this the Mediterranean was divided with Augustus controlling the west, Antony controlling the east, and Lepidus controlling Africa. Later Octavian defeats Lepidus and controls Africa.
Augustus reigned from 31 BC – 14 AD. In accepting his inheritance from Julius Caesar, Augustus turned the republic into the empire. Civil war followed and by 30 BC he had eliminated his last rivals, Mark Antony and Cleopatra. The most important source of his power was that of the tribunes, which gave him the right of veto over any proposals. Augustus converted the republican citizen levy into a standing army, established regular pay and terms of service for soldiers, and a pension scheme for veterans.
Octavian gained victory and claimed the supreme rule of the Roman world. Upon his return from Egypt in 29BC, Octavian had full consulship powers and under counsel of his uncle’s death, refuted the appearance of acquisitioning too much power by ‘transferr(ing) the republic from my power to that domination of the senate and the people of Rome’. In return the senate conferred upon him proconsular imperium, whilst continuing to be elected consul every year. In a shrewd attempt for more power, Octavian decided to step down from his roles of power and show allegiance to the republican Rome. However in return the senate placed upon him more power
Octavian’s father had died when he was only young, and Caesar willingly took on the role. Though Caesar had many relatives, his favour fell upon Octavian, whom he elected to the college of pontifices (a religious role of high status), and send to Macedonia to complete his education and his military apprenticeship. Octavian in turn found a role model in Caesar, a fact that would lead his moves as a future ruler of Rome in later years. After Caesar had been assassinated in 44BC, he officially adopted Octavian as his son, and therefore rightful heir, in his will. Octavian was also named to be given three quarters of Caesar’s wealth; however this money was take my Marc Antony, who refused to hand it over to Octavian over his irritation that Caesar had placed favouritism on an obscure relative.
Introduction: • Gaius Octavius was born in 63BCE and was the great nephew of Julius Caesar. Caesar took Octavius under his wing, having him elected to the College of Pontiffs and enrolling him in to the Patrician Aristocracy. When Octavius learned Caesar had been assassinated he also found out that Caesar has adopted him and named him his heir. Octavius took on Caesar’s name and became Gaius Julius Caesar Octavius but was known simply as Octavian. • The situation in Rome toward the end of the Republican period was that the country’s senate had lost majority of its power.
Valentinian II- Gratian’s brother- maintained his rule over Italy, Pannonia, Hispania and Africa. In the last paragraph on page 198 of the Pontifex’ Ambrose makes a direct prediction in the presence of Leo; “There will be war, Leo, not just now, perhaps, but Magnus Maximus will come to Italy”. True to Ambrose’s word, in the year 387 Magnus invaded Italy. This spur of ambition led him to be defeated in the Battle of Save in 388 by the hand of Theodosius. Magnus Maximus took power right away, and no one really responded to it until he got closer and closer to Italy.
Patricians: These were the wealthy aristocrats who monopolized political power in the early Roman republic. They were the descendants of the original members of the Senate at the time the Etruscans were overthrown in the late 6th century B.C. Plebeians: These were the middle and lower class commoners of Rome who struggled for more than 200 years to gain politically equality with patricians. They won this conflict because they were important to Rome militarily. Conflict of the Orders: This was the long struggle between the patricians and plebeians in the early Roman republic.
Their government was important because it symbolized self-governance under their own selected ruler or king. Romulus was the first king of Roman. Some of his notable achievements included established the senate composed by 100 nobles men. Also, he reformed the Roman calendar adding the months of January and February. Another important Roman king was Tullius Hostilius.
While Diocletian was co-emperor, there was a general order and a quick response to military threats. However, these reforms encouraged ambition in the co-rulers and their generals. Therefore, when Diocletian retired from power in 305 C.E., those ambitions led to internal struggles and civil war. The man who emerged out of this Civil war as the victor was Constantine, son of one of the tetrarchs, who claimed the throne of the entire Roman Empire for himself in 306 C.E., reuniting the two districts of the empire after approximately 22 years of division into two districts. Defeating most of his enemies and opposition by 313 C.E., he overcame his last rival in 324 C.E.
This helps to reach a better understanding of why Hellenization actually occurred in Rome. As Rome was in the midst of a changing republic it looked on new ways to express ones power and wealth. They looked to the Greeks and saw the beautiful temples and structures being built by the wealthy and successful in battle, thus the romans began to use architecture as the Greeks did. Octavius was the first roman to Hellenize Rome with his porticus and therefore was the start to a new era in roman architecture. The reason the Porticus Octavia is relied on so much to describe the Hellenization is due to how similarly Octavius modeled after the Greeks.