THE AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF MALCOLM X AS TOLD TO ALEX HALEY Christopher Jones Summer 2011 Not until numerous of court cases about segregation of the races in the United States, blacks were limited by law from public venues such as restaurants, neighborhoods, golf courses, schools, and movie theaters. The U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown vs. the Board of Education in 1954 made separating schools illegal. In later years, the Supreme Court handed down decisions of invalidating segregation of golf courses, swimming pools, and beaches. Rosa Parks's in 1955 refusing to give up her seat on a bus to a white man, as the first step in the American civil rights movement. She was arrested and fined for violating the city's segregationist laws about
was the pastor of Dexter Avenue Baptist Church in Montgomery, Alabama. When Martin Luther King Jr. was in Montgomery, Alabama, he organized a nonviolent boycott of the bus lines. This came after Rosa Parks was arrested in 1955 for not giving up her seat and moving to the back of the bus. The boycott lasted 382 days before the government stepped into end the segregation on the buses. In 1963 in Birmingham, Alabama, Martin Luther King Jr. launched a nonviolent march in the city to protest the unfair hiring in stores.
One of the events during this time period was the Montgomery Bus Boycott. It was considered a major turning point as Rosa Parks - a seamstress worker and member of the NAACP refused to move from the segregated area of the bus, causing outrage throughout the black community. King organized a protest where for 381 days people refused to use the buses. As a result the bus companies of Montgomery lost masses of money which emphasized the importance of the black community, and the powerful influence that King had within America as he was able to lead them to success showing the effectiveness of non-violent protest. However, there were limitations of the bus boycott; the campaign lasted from December 1, 1955 to December 20, 1956 when a federal ruling, Browder v. Gayle, took effect, and led to a United States Supreme Court decision that declared the Alabama and Montgomery laws requiring segregated buses to be unconstitutional.
Dr. King and another protester were arrested, and Jimmie Lee Jackson was killed. The first group of approximately 500 Civil Rights advocates left Brown Chapel on March 7 and attempted to cross the Edmund Pettus Bridge to march along US Rte. 80 to Montgomery, the State capital. Alabama State Police blocked the road and ordered the assembled marchers to disperse. When the marchers refused, the troopers attacked and beat them, and forced them back to Brown Chapel, this was called “Bloody Sunday.” A second march occurred on March 9, but only as far as the Pettis Bridge.
How accurate is it to say that the status of African Americans changed very little in the years 1945-55? During the Second World War many African Americans went to countries where there was no segregation between white and black people and once they returned home to the USA, they felt that they helped other countries with racial problems but came home to face the same problems. Many African Americans gained confidence to fight for their rights after fighting in the Second World War. In the years 1945-55 there were big economic and social changes in America. During the war many African Americans migrated from the southern countryside's to the southern towns and cities for work.
It was proposed in 1870 but it was passed in 1875. The Act guaranteed that every person, regardless of race, colour, or previous condition of servitude, was entitled to the same treatment in public accommodations but was rarely enforced as several important officials in police forces were openly racist. In north, racism was at the minimum for America and the ex-slaves would have had a very different experience than those of the south. The Freedman’s Bureau was a service that tried to aid former slaves with food, housing and other necessities. It was intended to last only one year after the civil but lasted longer due to surprising support and need for its services.
Though this is true Black people are still fighting for equality today. As a result of the court ruling of Brown’s v. Board of Education the governor of Little Rock Arkansas Orval Faubus declared he could not enforce order in his state if he had to desegregate his schools. Therefore he disobeyed the Supreme Court ruling. He placed national guards at Central High School in Little Rock Arkansas and instructed them to turn away the nine African American students who were supposed to attend school that
This movement caused Africans to walk to work and refused to ride the bus. This put Martin Luther King Jr. at front of the civil rights movement. His leadership was done in a fashion of non-violent protesting from the pull-pit. He urged African Americans not to take the bus to work until they desegregated the buses. Rev.
When a black person got murdered by someone, it was always overlooked, they found more black mens bodies when they searched for the three civil rights workers, all of which went unnoticed. It was a bold move, but one that was needed to bring attention to Mississippi and the cause they were fighting for. Three events that are critical moments in the civil rights include: On December 1, 1955, Rosa Parks, a 42 year old black woman, refused to give up her seat on a bus for a white man. She was arrested and convicted of breaking the laws. She appealed the conviction and challenged segregation laws.
It split as new militant groups formed, where leaders believed non-violence was useless, and they had to fight with violence. These groups included the Black Muslins and the Black Panther Movement in 1966, they believed in Black Separatism and were against King. In the 20th century, life had already changed a lot, but there were still problems. For example, in 1998, three White men linked to the Klu Klux Klan chained a disabled Black man to the back of their truck and dragged him along a country road until he died. Then, in February 2000, four New York policemen were found innocent of the murder of a Black suspect.