How to Transcribe. Essay

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Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology Jürg Strässler English Phonemic Transcription It is important to understand the difference between a narrow transcription and a broad one. The term narrow is applied to a transcription which contains a certain amount of phonetic detail: the narrower a transcription is, the more phonetic detail it contains and the more diacritic signs and special symbols it requires. This kind of transcription is a phonetic transcription and is placed between square brackets ( [...] ). A broad transcription shows an absence of phonetic detail. The broadest transcription contains only phonemes. It is referred to as a phonemic transcription and is written between slants ( /.../ ). In dictionaries (and in dictations) it is common usage to use a phonemic transcription with the added symbols for vowel length ( 9 ) , primary stress ( ! ) and secondary stress ( $ ), and the diacritic for syllabic consonants (as in mÿ and kÿ ). Transcription of consonants: English has the following consonant phonemes: Voiceless stops: Voiced p as in 'pea' t as in 'tea' k as in 'key' b as in 'bee' d as in 'do' g as in 'go' l as in 'map' m as in 'nap' M as in 'hang' nasals: fricatives: f as in 'fat' S as in 'thin' s as in 'sip' R as in 'ship' g as in 'hat' v C z Y affricates: sR as in 'chin' cY as in 'gin' approximants: liquids: glides: as in as in as in as in 'vat' 'that' 'zip' 'measure' k as in 'led' q as in 'red' i as in 'yet' v as in 'wet' Some hints for transcribing consonants: 1. The main difference to listen for is whether the consonant is voiced or voiceless. 2. The following consonant letters have (nearly always) their usual English sound values: p, b, t, d1, k, m, n, l, r, f2, v, z, h, w (1 except certain past and past part.- ending __ed) (2 except in / Pu

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