How important were the German princes in creating the atmosphere within which Lutheranism was successful? The German princes were essential for creating the atmosphere in which Lutheranism was successful between 1521 and 1555 because they maintained Luther’s teachings, making it a reality. Also they obtained military authority over Charles V who at this time, was a new, inexperienced emperor and also had major influence over Charles power due to the fact they were the ones who elected him. This proved useful at the Diet of Worms in 1521 when instead of Luther being issued full excommunication, instead he was offered a full hearing and this was all down to princely support. By 1531 the Schmalkaldic League was set up as a united defence alliance by protestant princes in response to Charles’s threat of eradicating Lutheranism.
One reason why the opponents of the Tsars were more successful than those of the Communists was the fact that, under the Tsars, opposition attained a legal status. It can be argued that the implementation of the Zemstvos under Alexander II paved the way for the full legalisation of opposition, as this allowed the spawning of political ideas. However, under Nicholas II this was more prevalent, as the October Manifesto allowed for the full legalisation of opposition through the implementation of the Dumas. Though the Dumas acted as unsuccessful opposition to the Tsar – as he declared the Fundamental Laws almost immediately after the Dumas came into existence – this was important as it allowed the opposition groups to burgeon. Unlike the regimes of both Alexander II and III, political discussion was allowed, and as such it developed more so than at any other time in the period.
There were many of the comparatively prosperous who also came; to better themselves economically. They had heard of how easy it was to proliferate one's riches in America, and with an archetypal German interest in making the most of circumstances, some of the families embarked to seek a greater fortune in the new world. A second notable reason for the coming of the Germans was the religious persecution of the Lutherans and Protestants. While the Midwest received many liberal-minded Germans, it also acquired many of Germany's most ebullient conservatives. In 1817 King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia decreed a unification of the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Prussia, and his action was accompanied by the rulers of several of the smaller German states.
The railways, particularly the Trans-Siberian railway, also gave Eastern Russia a link to Europe and Western Russia a link to the Pacific Ocean, which made it easier to export Russian goods. Therefore the Russian governments’ investment in railways was extremely successful in promoting economic growth. The Russian government was also successful in improving Russia’s heavy industry through the introduction of tariffs on imports. This clearly helped Russian heavy industry to expand as steel production increase eightfold from 1880 to 1905 and petroleum production increased over 2500% during the same time period. These tariffs, introduced by Vyshnedgradsky and continued by Witte, both increased revenue for the government and made
Bismarck made Prussia the strongest state in Germany politically as well as what was already understood; their economic and military dominance. Also in 1871, the Constitution of the German Empire was introduced, this brought in the basic laws for the German Empire it was based on the constitution of the North German Confederation. A German citizenship was created, with equal treatment of citizens within each state guaranteed which would surely encourage greater German national identity upon the people in the Empire. Bismarck also introduced universal manhood suffrage which was a very liberal introduction which allowed every man in Germany to vote above a certain age, this also allowed Jews, Catholics, Poles and other Reichsfeinde (part of the Kulturkampf policy that Bismarck brought in which largely hindered the strength of himself as it caused the Catholic Centre Party to strengthen) to vote which could weaken the strength of Germany as it allows the enemies of the state to choose whether or not they want the government ran how it was. This could be argued whether universal manhood suffrage did encourage greater German national identity because it could also be seen to weaken
The unity of Germany was once weak due to several territorial changes brought on by Napoleon as well as the rule of Metternich who enforced conservative ideas and Prussian favoritism. When Otto von Bismarck became leader the sense of German pride and unity grew in strong numbers. He was a strong ruler who was willing to go to great lengths to achieve his goals. Through wars with Austria and France he was able to gain control of the German city-states. Nationalism held the several German states together as one and a new German empire with Bismarck as emperor was formed.
Wilson, too, supported the Progressive movement. Despite Roosevelt’s attempts to bring the trusts under control, they were even more powerful in 1913 than they had been in 1900. Wilson believed that only action by the federal government could halt this process. He called his policies ”The New Freedom”. They were put into effect by a series of laws passed between 1913 and 1917.
Roosevelt’s republican party split, Taft’s separation from the ideas of Roosevelt, and Wilson’s democratic perspective bring light to the idea that although these men shared the progressive opinion, their ideas differed in many ways. Theodore Roosevelt was the brain behind the progressive party that would eventually lead to the split of the Republican party. Roosevelt called for the “Square Deal” between business, consumers, and labor and supported the “Strenuous Life”. Unlike the others, Roosevelt wished to destroy bad trusts and regulate the good ones rather than break them all up. Roosevelt was the first president to introduce progressive ways of thinking and although each president’s ideas were similar in ways such as trust busting and conservation measures, his ideas were the framework for the U.S. William Howard Taft was the presidential candidate hand picked by Roosevelt.
He wanted a new constitution, the army to be well maintained, religion to be subordinated against the united Germany, Prussia to be economically strengthened and to curb the growth of socialism. Bismarck's aim for the constitution was that he wanted to bring a federal system in to Germany. Prussia now dominated the new Germany called the Second Reich, which covered two thirds of the land area and contained the same proportion of the population and has practically all the industry. The new constitution drawn up by Bismarck would included each of the twenty-five states. Each state would have considerable control over their own affairs and decided their own form of government.
Kleindutch supporters saw in Prussia a more cohesive state, which was less archaic and more progressive economically. Also Bismark was more determined to prepare his army and do anything to unify with Prussia. It was the famous blood and iron theory. Also his international diplomacy was a key figure on the unification with Germany. Between 1864 and 1865 he promoted an alliance with Austria reasoning that this would allay the fears of the southern German states, which were more naturally inclined towards Vienna than Berlin.