Elizabeth was strict. It is extremely debateable whether Elizabeth the 1st was a ‘great’ queen or not. Looking back to this important era of history [1558-1603], makes you think about the religion, money, the marriage, the social life, and the Spanish armada. Not only those other things, but Mary Stuart Queen of Scots was a very big problem to Elizabeth during the time she was on the throne. The Roman Catholics in those days thought Elizabeth 1st was the heretic queen in their eyes; however, for the protestant, she was their hero.
By the time it came to 1918 food shortages had caused riots and discontent and the government was finding it difficult to keep the army supplied. Industrialists became independent on war time business and they severely struggled when the war came to an abrupt end in 1918. Due to the opposition from many neutralists the government operated through the use of emergency powers, where parliament played the role of simply rubber stamping legislation. The Italian socialists openly condemned the conflict as a capitalist or ‘bosses’ war. Italian politics was largely divided during war years.
An unmarried female ruler was inconceivable to sixteenth-century Europeans. There were two major threats to the peace of her reign, the reigns of Edward and Mary had left England as a divided country religiously. Elizabeth’s religious ideals were unknown, but both Catholics and Protestants hoped for her support. She brought Protestants who had been exiled back into England. As for the religious divide, Elizabeth created a Church of England where Protestants and Catholics alike could go to pray and let people decide what religion they would like to follow.
But this soon changed as Henry VIII doubled household expenditure and started costly wars against both France and Scotland. With his wealth rapidly decreasing, Henry VIII imposed a series of taxes devised by his finance minister, Thomas Wolsey. Soon the people began to resent Wolsey's taxes and a new source of finance had to be found: in 1544, Henry reduced the silver content of new coins by about 50%; this was repeated to a lesser extent the following year. This, combined with injection of bullion from the New World, increased the money supply in England; which led to continuing price inflation. This threatened landowners' wealth, which encouraged the landowners to become more efficient, and enclosure was seen as a way of doing
Also, Mary struggled to re-establish the Catholic faith as she was unable to restore monasteries and chantries and unable to restore land due to rested interests. When Mary came to power, she was determined to crush the Protestant faith. It was part of her policy to reverse the religious changes made by Henry VIII and Edward VI, she wanted to restore Papal Supremacy and she supported a reconciliation with Rome. It could be viewed that this was a public display of force to impress the Pope and exiles such as Reginald Pole. Mary’s chief advisor, Gardiner, supported this policy.
It deprived Germany of wealth-earning areas, such as the coalfields in Silesia. As well as this the treaty also imposed harsh reparations on Germany (£6,600 billion). Germany asked for reductions however the victors, especially France were not forgiving and needed money to pay debts to the US. With no gold reserves and a failing income Germany could no longer afford to pay and declared itself bankrupt. Why was the Ruhr occupied and what were the consequences?
The Radical Prime Minister, Edourd Herriot, was met with a severe economic crisis caused by the mismanagement of government expenditure. A divide in the Cartel on how to solve the crisis meant Herriot stepped down in 1926. The demise of a government due to disagreements on a solution to France’s economic problems was an often occurrence during the 1920’s and 1930’s. The French people always suffered as a consequence of the
This debt was further accentuated by her involvement in the American Revolution from 1775, and the government continued spending more than they were receiving in taxes. This ensured that by 1788, the royal treasury was empty. This forced heavier taxes upon the 3rd estate, such as the hated gabelle, which angered them as this level of taxing was not enforced upon the higher estates, despite the fact that they had more money. However, the 3rd estate faced graver problems than this as, from 1788 – 1789, a series of bad weather events resulted in bad crops. This was a devastating blow to France as the
But that’s not the only reason religion caused the civil war, King Charles believed in the divine right. It was when the king/queen believes that god put them on the throne. So Charles took all the power because of this and Parliament didn’t want to go with his decision which contributes to the civil war. Also he made Scottish churches uses English prayer books which caused riots and England went to battle with Scotland. England lost.
This incompatibility stifled the coalition's progress. The high hopes of a "land fit for heroes" meant this lack of progress especially hurt his reputation in office. This internal factor was thereby key in helping the Conservatives engineer his downfall. This lack of progress was also due to a general downturn in the economy: caused by WW1 and the growth of competition abroad. A policy of retrenchment was introduced after a short boom.