Although, there was no lack of other factors – such as finance and religion – that also led to the deterioration of the relationship. Buckingham’s Policies continued to develop a fundamental rift with parliament when he supported Richelu in his campaign against the protestant hueganauts and because he was perceived as the kings favourite by parliament the actions of Buckingham only exacerbated the relations between parliament and the crown. Relations between England and France quickly deteriorated when in 1627, Louis XIII was displeased with Charles’s failure to fully extend the promised toleration to Catholics, and Charles was annoyed at Louis for using English ships in the suppression of the Huguenots. Buckingham had also tried to seduce the French Queen, however, the element that had a tremendous impact on the
Luther’s first step was to attempt reform within the Catholic church was posting “The 95 Theses on the Power of Indulgences” on the door of the church of Wittenberg to directly protest the selling of indulgences. Condemning indulgences was, in fact, condemning the pope, and his authority to grant pardons to the Catholics. Opposing indulgences was not the end of opposing the pope, however, when the pope sent Luther a letter telling him to take back his words or be excommunicated, Luther burned the letter publicly. Eventually when Luther was excommunicated, he continued to spread his heretical ideas especially through his writings, some of which included “On Christian Liberty” which led the peasant class to believe Lutheranism would lift their oppression and “An Appeal to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation” which invited Christian princes to take over the wealth of the German monasteries. Luther needed the support of the masses to bring about his reform.
In 1216 the Barons of England rebelled against King John, the Barons rebelled for a number of reasons, they include the trust between the King and the Barons, how John increased the taxes, the church and the rule breaking of the Magna Carta, some of the reasons were caused at the beginning of John’s reign, known as long term causes, and some of King John’s poor decisions triggered the rebellion, known as short term causes. One imperative reason that supports the fact why the Barons rebelled against King John was the fact that he did not ask their advice, a good King should always listen to the advice of the Barons. Instead he preferred to the advice of foreign advisers. This annoyed the Barons and chose not abide by The King. Consequently when he asked the Barons to provide an army to win back his land in France they refused.
Gregory VII saw these offenses, how they were tearing away at the church as a whole, and wanted to abolish these practices. It was through the reform and purification that then led to a more organized church, with a strong hand placed firmly on the ruling class of the medieval era. In 325 AD the Council of Nicaea forbade marriage and concubinage among the lower ranks of the clergy, which were still customary too much of the Western church. The reform of the 11th century was determined to eliminate this behavior at all costs. While Pope Gregory VII did not introduce the celibacy of the priesthood into the Church, he did take up the fight against the indecency with greater energy unlike his predecessors.
Bismarck began to fight back, he banned the most active order of Catholic priests and introduced a law that the government had a right to inspect all schools, including Catholic ones. The government would also control the training of priests and appoint them to churches and no one could be married without a civil ceremony in a government office. The Catholics saw this all as an attack on their beliefs, the country was left in struggle resulting in the ‘Kulterkampf’ movement. The loyalty of the Catholics had been weakened and the Prussian conservatives did not want the government to control local problems. This made Bismarck largely unpopular and cause disunity in Germany.
Luther spoke out against clerical celibacy, papal abuses, salvation by works, and other Catholic doctrines. Luther proves to be the better reformer because of his full commitment to reformation. He did not involve himself with the teachings and rituals of the Catholics, within his writings and words he tore down what he found corrupt. Erasmus on the other hand was a Catholic priest, even though he wanted to reform, there was still a part that did not want to fight the church upfront because of his role. Erasmus tried to find a middle road approach, but this only disappointed scholars from both sides.
This benefited Germany because it was a step towards the unification of Germany, whilst still enabling Bismarck to have the individual power that he wanted. However this didn’t benefit the Liberals at al because Bismarck passed the laws that he wanted, and didn’t view them as allies. One of the main factor’s behind the reason why Bismarck was unsuccessful in my opinion is Kulturkampf (K), which was a divided attack on the Catholic Church due to Bismarck’s belief that the Centre Party represented a threat to the Reich. The campaign deliberately set the Catholics against the Protestants, and alienated them from the Reich. Bismarck’s main reasoning for following Kulturkampf was to keep hold of his influence, which he felt was threatened by the Centre Party, and he felt that K would prevent any uprising.
The cause of the English civil war The title ‘The cause of the English civil war’ means, what happened to make the civil war start. A civil war is when a country fights against itself with different beliefs. In 1625 King James died and Charles I came to the throne. James had strongly believed in the divine right of kings he had thought that monarchs got their power and the right to rule from God and that because of this they must be obeyed, the people of England were not very happy with this because it meant that the king could do whatever he wanted and claim that God had told him to. England for a long time had been told to hate Catholics and when James came from Scotland and became king he decided to marry Henrietta Maria, a Catholic, the people became unhappy because they did not know if their heir would be Protestant or Catholic.
But that’s not the only reason religion caused the civil war, King Charles believed in the divine right. It was when the king/queen believes that god put them on the throne. So Charles took all the power because of this and Parliament didn’t want to go with his decision which contributes to the civil war. Also he made Scottish churches uses English prayer books which caused riots and England went to battle with Scotland. England lost.
One of this war's causes was the nearly tacit public opinion, as well as the Parliament's, that they should support the Protestants due to Elizabeth (James's daughter) and Frederick - both involved in the war. The people and monarchy started to disagree, resulting into a loss of balance in the whole land. Catholics also earned themselves a bad image due to the gunpowder plot, once again creating a scarce relationship between them and the Protestants. However, it's common logic that the situation would be conflictual, as two forms of Christianity were impossible to coexist. As it was nearly impossible for James to neglect the conflicts, he attempted to marry his son Henry to a Spanish princess (dynastic marriage), the scope being to bring Protestants and Catholics at peace.