How Mutation Affect Dna 3 D Structure

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How mutation affects a 3d DNA model. DNA contains the information which makes each person unique. It is found in the nucleus of the cell. Nucleic acid is the basic of unit of DNA. It exist as a double strand helix molecule. Each strand has a sugar phosphate backbone and a complementary base pair. The strands are held together by hydrogen bonding (non- covalent) between paired bases, adenine (A) with thymine (T) and guanine (G) with cytosine (C). DNA plays a great role in protein synthesis, because it holds the information for every sequence of the amino acids that make up a protein, in the gene. Mutation is a permanent change in the genetic sequence, which makes up protein. DNA mutation does not affect the 3 D structure rather it affect the order in which each base pair sequencing. The effect of DNA mutation is dependent up on the location where the mutation occur. If it occurs in the junk DNA, it may not have any effect at all. Other types of mutations in DNA can occur when small part of DNA break off the chromosome. These pieces of DNA may introduced in another region in the chromosome and affect the usual translation of information. This type of mutation can affect coding for specific amino acids, which can affect the type of protein formed, which can alter cellular and organismal function. The most common type of mutation are base pair substitution and insertion and deletion mutation. In substitution mutation one base is substitutes another base in the pair. Two types of substitution are Nonsense and missense. A missense occurs when the change in nucleotide changes the amino acid coded for by the affected codon and nonsense substitution occurs when the changed nucleotide transforms the codon into a stop codon. This change leads to a stop in the translation process and affect the production of the protein. In deletion and insertion mutation, a

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