Many questions have been raised about whether children need more than ‘cupboard love’ to exist. Do we really need comfort and love to survive? Harlow and Ainsworth’s research work emphasised the importance of attachment with their primary caregiver however their methods were very different. Harlow (1958) and Ainsworth (1950) provided valuable insights into sensitive responsiveness by children and their main caregiver. By comparing the psychologists’ experiments we get a greater insight into children’s requirements not just for necessities like nourishment but their innate need to be loved.
As parents we are supposed to be guardians, providers and protectors of the family. There are many characteristics in being a good parent. *I think that parents need to be good listeners when it comes to their children. Sometimes we are so quick to judge our children's actions and words that we tend not to hear them crying out for love, attention or just help in general. We need to listen to them and their feelings and how they react to things.
These include a stable satisfaction of the sex drive, which help prevent a sexual ‘free-for-all’. Secondly, Murdock claimed another function was the reproduction of the next generation. Thirdly, the family socializes the young into society’s shared norms and values, and finally it meets it’s members’ economic needs, such as food and shelter. The concept of Murdock’s four essential functions are described in Item 2B concerning the “socializing children into the norms and values of society” function. It can be argued that without the family, there would be no form of primary socialization, which takes place largely within the family where the child learns key things such as language, basic skills and norms.
They believed that behaviour is learned through our environment through operant or classical conditioning and that behaviour is just a response to a stimulus. Operant conditioning is a learning method to change behaviour through reinforcement to produce the desired response. Classical conditioning requires a stimulus to trigger a response by pairing with an unconditional stimulus. Skinner and Harlow’s aims were to look into the understanding of the different influences on human behaviour. Skinner was interested in the behaviourist way of observing and measuring behaviour.
Bowlby believed that attachments are natural and adaptive. He also believed that we are all born with an inherited need to form attachments and this is to help us survive. This can also line up with Darwin’s theory of natural selection, which explains that any behaviour that helps us to survive to maturity and reproduce will be maintained in the gene pool. For example; a baby relies on its mother for food and care etc and without the mother the baby would be helpless. Babies have social releaser which unlocks the innate tendency for adults to care for them; these are both physical and behavioural social releasers.
Behaviorism is a form of learning from experiences and environment. Classical conditioning occurs when we produce a specific response to a certain stimulus, that behavior is basically focused on observation or stimulation which is defined as an acquisition of a new behavior. Cognitive Revolution is a modern theory based on cooperative action of ethology, brain science, and behavior analysis. Human behavior explained B. F. Skinner in the article "The Origins of Cognitive Thought," shows that behaviors are a part of the function of the human brain and by learning what happens inside the human body is as important as what behavior they gain or at upon learning from the event or stimuli. According to Skinner (1989) “The analysis of behavior need not wait until brain scientists have done their part.
Some experts believe that birth order is an important tool in shaping how you turn out as an adult. It determines how you see the world, how you expect the world to treat you, and how you treat others. Alfred Adler was the first theorist to suggest that birth order does influence a person’s personality. His belief, which is both accepted and rejected by researchers, is that the order or position of a child’s birth in the family influences their personality. However, what is often misunderstood is the fact that Adler did not believe it was simply the order of birth that influenced a child’s character, but rather it was the child’s environment, as well as their natural instinct or interpretation of their birth order which molded personalities.
Human infants are born unable to transport or care for themselves. Their survival depends on another human's efforts. We develop and learn about the world around us through the filter of other people. Our connections to others are key to not only our survival, but also to our happiness and the success of our careers." The meeting communication needs of an infant (with his/her mother) assures his survival and happiness when he grow up meeting child's communication needs assures his development.
Functionalism is based on the view that society is a system of interdependent parts held together by a shared culture or value consensus. Item A says, "while the family can provide young people with basic values and some useful practical skills." Functionalists believe that families socialise their children and teach them the values and norms of society and the item supports this as it talks about the family providing values. However, the item goes on to say,"it cannot equip individuals with everything they need in order to become fully functioning members of a large-scale society". This supports the functionalist view that the education system prepares young people for their future work roles.
Lesson 1 ,Assignment 1 1) It is difficult for researchers to isolate specific cause of child behaviour because each child’s environmental settings and values differs from carer to carer. Excellent point Nina! A child who is good in Mathematics may be because of generic in heritage or it could be from the great kindergarten Mathematic experiences. Good insight Correlation will not isolate the cause but instead will consider the relationship between two variables, and may propose that the environment has the greatest influence on human development and that people are born with predetermined characteristic. YES!!!!