How Is Cervical Cancer Prevented By The Human Papillomavirus Vaccine?
1.1 Identify and describe a problem or solution
Cervical cancer takes over 2.7 million life among women between the ages of 25 and 64 around the world, 2.4 million of which occur in developing countries and only 0.3 million in developed countries. Cervical cancer is a type of cancer that affects the lower part of a women’s womb. The cervix is covered with a layer of cells called squamous cells and glandular cells. The glandular cells line the inside of the cervix and produce mucus. The squamous cells are skin like cells that line the outside of the cervix. Both of these cells can become cancerous. The transformation zone is where these two types of cells meet and where most cervical cancers commence as shown in the diagrams. The transformation zone encounters metaplasia (changes from one type of differentiated tissue to another) a number of times: puberty - the endocervix (tissue lying inside of the cervical canal) moves out of the uterus; changes of the cervix linked with the menstrual cycle and post menopause - the uterus gets smaller moving the transformation zone up. Usually, all the changes are normal; however metaplasia increases the risk of cervical cancer making the transformation zone, the most common area for cervical cancer to occur. There are two main types of cervical cancer: squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma which accounts for 90% of cases, starts at the lining of the cervix and develops into pre-cancerous changes which involve mild abnormalities of the squamous cells, leading to cancer. Adenocarcinoma which accounts for 5% to 10% of cases develops in the mucus glands within the cervix. This type is difficult to detect as it starts in the inside of the cervix and may not be picked up by Pap tests.
There are many causes of cervical cancer but the main one is the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) which is associated with 70% cases of cervical cancer....