Imperialism, also called empire building, is when a country expands geographically, to earn capital, for religious reasons, because of humanitarian concern, of simply because of the Nationalism in the “mother” country, which desire to demonstrate that their country was the best and should that to the whole world. Many historians say that the economic interests were the most important driving force of Imperialism. The economy was annexed to the industrial revolution during the 19th century. This meant Europe was experimenting a change in his traditional ways of earning capital. In the 19th century the economy was based in intensive labour , manufacturing goods, machinery, specialised labour, factories, etc.
With this new development, entrepreneurs began to open new workshops and forced their employees to work long strenuous hours to produce their goods. A number of other factors contributed to Britain’s success in the Industrial Revolution. For one, it had great deposits of coal and iron ore, which was essential for industrialization. Additionally, Britain was a political stable society and a great marketplace for manufactured goods. As demand rose for British goods, merchants needed more cost effective methods of production, which led to the rise of mechanics and factory systems.
By doing so, the furthest reaches of the world were brought to light and the world was slowly pulled together. Once the 1800s hit however, Globalization 2.0 took over. Multinational companies were beginning to form and with this came industrial integration. These companies were constantly in search of new outlets for markets, ideas, or even laborers. Because of new technology, such as railroads and steam engines, transportation became a more available option, this jump started globalization 2.0.
Advantages of imperialism will be discussed, as well as some of the disadvantages. Technology also played and key role in imperialism and will also be talked about in this paper. In conclusion, the paper will reiterate the perception of necessity for growth in the nation during this time. The description of imperialism in traditional usage is “the forcible extension of governmental control over foreign areas not designated for incorporation as integral parts of the nation” (Healy, 2008). More specifically, imperialism is the use of powerful national influence to impose its position over another society to acquire control of territory, government, and economy.
Mahan thought that the country with the most powerful navy would control the earth. He believed we should build a canal, and to protect the canal by controlling Hawaii and Cuba, which he thought was a necessity. During this time, thoughts of Anglo-Saxon superiority were a common "excuse" for imperialism. The political scientist and professor of Columbia University, John Burgess said the Anglo-Saxon races were "particularly endowed with the capacity for establishing national state, they are entrusted with the mission of conducting the political civilization of the modern world." Even before McKinley's presidency, he showed interest in foreign markets for the surplus of American products.
All of these issues helped to shape the American nation and its people. After the Civil War, the development of improved industrial methods and the arrival of masses of immigrants eager for factory jobs launched a new era of mass production in the United States. The nation turned its efforts toward economic recovery and expansion. America's abundant supply of natural resources, such as coal and oil, encouraged investment. Much of this investment came from already industrialized countries like Germany, Great Britain, and France whose business owners looked for new investment opportunities in the United States.
Japan’s industrialized economy needed resources, which Japan believed they could obtain through the same methods of imperialism. Japan would use the same military might as exhibited by Europe and America but would control not only the governments of these countries but the people as well. The indigenous people of these regions would suffer due to the greed of the great powers and eventually gain a greater since of nationalism needed to overthrow their aggressors. India Britain took control of India after defeating France and the Indian government during the eighteenth century. India was considered the “jewel in the crown” of the British Empire.
So "during the 19th century, the society and economy were completely altered due to the many new inventions created"(Essay written by Haisam Daouk, Hayat Showail, Kristelle Manassian, and Shahnaz Maktabi). Also, population increased all over the world. The rate of Industrial growth in 1913 right before the World war one increased dramatically in UK, France, Germany, Russia, and Italy. These five countries(and Austria-Hungary) are the main countries of World War one. These events all lead to Militarism, a better economy and foreign trade, led to countries having more money to buy weapons.
Peacetime industry began to give way to wartime endeavors. Factories built parts and shipped them to other factories to assemble into the final products. The country needed ammunition, tanks, aircraft, ships, bombs, protective gear, and many other wartime necessities. American industrialists invested in the development of new technologies that allowed the production in greater quantities and at a quicker pace. These endeavors provided a huge boost to the economy of the United States, advanced industrial technology, and provided more work opportunities for Americans.
It began in Britain because at the time, it was one of the most powerful empires in the world. During the industrial revolution, many new inventions were invented to make the way of living easier and more efficient. The biggest technological advancement was the steam-powered engine invented in 1760 by James Watt. The machine ran on new fuels like petroleum and coal and was an important power source. The steam engine helped the textile and manufacturing industries produce more products.