England’s monarchy in the early seventeenth century boasted multiple problems. Kings sought to rule independently and did not want to ration their power to the nobles in Parliament. Due to the large amount of debt left behind from Elizabeth I’s rule, some English kings created new taxes or found new means by which to raise revenue without consulting Parliament. England notably started to decline beginning with the rule of James I. Succeeding James I was Charles I, and his policies propelled England to civil war.
He required that his subjects “loan him the equivalent of five subsidies” and although it was “opposed by significant numbers in the localities,” the taxation still occurred as the government had “employed all its powers to eliminate resistance”. Moreover, the Forced Loan only happened as a result of Charles dismissing the 1626 Parliament, forfeiting his opportunity of obtaining further grants for his wartime expenditure. Parliament had already been antagonised by Charles’ decision to dismiss them and now that Charles was forcing taxation on others in order to fund his wartime expenditure, due to disastrous foreign policy which Parliament largely disagreed with, it is clear that the Forced Loan had worsened relations greatly. In addition to this, the financing of foreign policy also affected the relationship between Crown and Parliament. As stated previously, the Forced Loan existed to fund England’s wars considering that Parliament was reluctant to grant Charles further subsidies.
He introduced this tax to the whole country and misused it by not using it for ship money. So people had to pay money to Charles when they barley had money for themselves. This caused argument because people in parliament didn’t pay and the case was taken to court but Charles’s tax was ruled legal. The most obvious reason for the civil war is power. Divine right also comes in to power.
After the war, Great Britain was in a large enough debt that it was able to destroy the English government. This affected political and economic relations between the colonies and Great Britain. The British had ideals that set them apart from the English colonies. Despite the two of them working together against the French opposition, the ways the British treated and behaved around the colonists in British North America convinced them that they would be put entirely under the rule of the English crown and one day become enslaved. The British forgot about the role that the American troops had in the war.
In source 4 we also learn that much must have depended on diplomatic relations with Maximilian and Ferdinand, however Henry’s allies proved unfaithful and unreliable. Source 4, is written by a member of the Government of England. The government is who Henry and Wolsey would go to for Money for these situations. The Government did not like how much Money Henry kept asking for so this could have been reflected in Keith Randall’s report. Henry spent 1.4 millions pounds on fighting wars between 1511-25 and this set England back a far way.
Charles’ army was defeated and he was in deep trouble. Charles had run out of money and no one was paying their taxes. His last resort was… Parliament. In 1640, Charles came back begging for help. Parliament compromised with Charles.
England for a long time had been told to hate Catholics and when James came from Scotland and became king he decided to marry Henrietta Maria, a Catholic, the people became unhappy because they did not know if their heir would be Protestant or Catholic. In 1625 England became involved in expensive foreign wars - with the Austrian Empire then in 1627 a war against France. This meant that Charles was very short of money and so he forced rich people to lend it to him. In 1628 Charles asked Parliament to let him raise custom duties on wines and many other goods. The MPs were not happy with the forced loans and foreign wars so they presented Charles with the Petition of Rights which was just parliament saying that Charles cannot raise custom duties without parliaments permission.
The nobility of England appeared to increase in power because of the weakness of the king. The King had clear favourites in both the Earl of Somerset and the Earl of Suffolk. The Earl of Suffolk was permitted to ‘dominate’ the royal household during the period Henry was too young to be ruler. When he was accused of treason by the commons due to the business in France, the King stood by him in protection. The king sent him to exile, however in the English Channel, the ship carrying the Earl of Suffolk was intercepted by ‘Nicholas of the Tower’, and Suffolk was beheaded by its sailors in April 1450.
When the French and Indian War broke out between the British and the French, Britain hoped to use the colonies as an extra source of wealth to fight the war. As the area for war expanded from India to North America, the cost of the war increased dramatically. This lead Britain to impose new forms of taxes such as the stamp act which put a tax on legal documents and the sugar act which put a tax on sugar (which at the time was a commonly used product used in the colonies), and new regulations like the navigation acts, to prevent the colonies from trading with foreign nations. The colonies did not agree with Britain’s imposition of the new laws as they were not fighting the war. The colonists believed that they should have separate laws from Britain because they are not directly represented in parliament.
This lead to Venice’s downfall as the policies made were not suitable for the country’s needs. Over-dependence on Mercenaries (Point) A political challenge that Venice faced is the over-dependence on mercenaries. (Example) An example of the over-dependence on mercenaries was that the paid mercenaries were not loyal to venice and as the mercenaries often switched sides depending on the state that paid them the most money. French Mercenaries also plotted to kill the council of ten in 1619 and made Venice doubt their mercenaries. (Explanation) When war broke out mercenaries had left