The largest human cause of dead zones is nutrient run off from abundant use of fertilizers, animal waste and sewage. The runoff is a bi-product of our agribusiness, farming practices and growing population. Before immense land development the wetlands acted as a natural barrier and filter. The runoff would be depleted in the soil by the plants before it could reach the rivers and ocean. Human commercial activity and land development have destroyed the natural shield of the wetlands.
How and why should we protect the rainforest? There are many reasons why we should protect rainforests. Firstly, I am going to talk about the problems affecting rainforests throughout the world. The most affected rainforest in the world is the Amazon Rainforest due to the deforestation happening. From an environmental perspective the Amazon is negatively affected from the burning of the trees which is polluting the biggest rainforest in the world with Carbon dioxide (Co2).
It also releases large amounts of methane which is considered an earth warming gas. Just like methane , greenhouse gases are released. Greenhouse gases add to the greenhouse house affect which causes global warming. The gases help trap heat making temperatures. The raise of the temperature has been affecting humans and animals.
Owing to the development of industry and the use of fossil fuels, the amount of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere has produced and the average global temperature seems to have risen. What’s more, deforestation can affect climate changes. The growing of trees and plants can absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere because of photosynthesis, however, deforestation lead to carbon dioxide emissions. Both of these can lead to global warming of the atmosphere. The report (UNEPWMO, 2004, P10) also pointed out, the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation are altering the composition of the atmosphere and contributing to climate change.
Phosphorus Cycle The phosphorus cycle is the biogeochemical cycle that describes the movement of phosphorus through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. Unlike many other biogeochemical cycles, the atmosphere does not play a significant role in the movement of phosphorus, because phosphorus and phosphorus-based compounds are usually solids at the typical ranges of temperature and pressure found on Earth. The production of phosphine gas occurs only in specialized, local conditions. Low phosphorus (chemical symbol, P) availability slows down microbial growth, which has been shown in studies of soil microbial biomass. Soil microorganisms act as sinks and sources of available P in the biogeochemical cycle.
The following summary is how human activities have contributed to disruption of biogeochemical cycles (M Moses et al., 2010): Use of phosphorus fertilizers: Human influences on the phosphorus cycle come mainly from the introduction and use of commercial artificial fertilizers. Use of fertilizers mainly has affected the phosphorus and nitrogen cycles. Plants may not be able to use all of the phosphate fertilizer applied; as a consequence,
This combination makes waters toxic to crayfish, clams, fish, and other aquatic animals. It also affects the food sources of herbivores and insects. How does acid rain affect the environment? Acid rain has a hand in global warming as well which is rapidly changing climates around the world. With the climate changes many plants and animals are having to relocate or are dying because they are not fit for the changes in their surroundings.
Consequences The most conspicuous effect of cultural eutrophication is the creation of dense blooms of noxious, foul-smelling phytoplankton that reduce water clarity and harm water quality (Figure 2). Algal blooms limit light penetration, reducing growth and causing die-offs of plants in littoral zones while also lowering the success of predators that need light to pursue and catch prey (Lehtiniemi et al. 2005). Furthermore, high rates of photosynthesis associated with eutrophication can deplete dissolved inorganic carbon and raise pH to extreme levels during the day. Elevated pH can in turn ‘blind' organisms that rely on perception of dissolved chemical cues for their survival by impairing their chemosensory abilities (Figure 3) (Turner & Chislock 2010).
Air pollution comes from a wide variety of sources * Vehicle or manufacturing exhaust * Forest fires, volcanic eruption, dry soil erosion * Building construction or demolition Many scientists believe that global warming is also related to increased air pollution. 2. Water Pollution Water pollution involves any contaminated water, whether from chemical, particulate or bacterial matter that degrades the water’s quality and purity. It can occur in oceans, rivers, lakes and underground reservoirs. Causes of water pollution include: * Increased sediment from soil erosion * Improper waste disposal and littering * Leaching of soil pollution into water supplies The effects of water pollution include decreasing the quantity of drinkable water available, lowering water supplies for crop irrigation and impacting fish and wildlife that require water of certain purity for survival.
The substance that absorbs sunlight is chlorophyll, which is mainly contained in chloroplasts. This energy is used to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) and water into sugars. This conversion creates the waste product oxygen, which is used by humans for breathing. Without being able to photosynthesise plants will stop growing and die. In a plant growing in the dark the chlorophyll will slowly be destroyed causing them to use their food reserves.