Their marriage had also managed to alienate many of the nobles. Due to Elizabeth being a 'commoner' and 'deflowered'! As a result the Woodvilles had suddenly managed to make their way into upper autocracy in England. Margaret of Anjou was also another significant problem for Edward IV. Margaret continued to reopen hostilities and receiving aid from Louis XI.
How important was the Duke of Buckingham to the breakdown in relations between Crown and Parliament in the years of 1625-1629? Charles’ main advisor and partner in foreign policy was the Duke of Buckingham. Due to Buckingham being a wicked advisor led Charles to a disastrous foreign policy. This propelled him into confrontation with parliament. Buckingham had too much influence with the King; this meant he was seen as one of the main causes to the break down in parliament.
To what extent were Henry VI failings responsible for the outbreak of conflict in 1455? In some ways, Henry VI’s failings could be classed as wholly responsible for the outbreak of conflict in 1455. However, other factors remain and other people can be to blame for the eventual downfall of the monarchical state. Henry VI managed to fail not only in his political leadership but his military leadership as well. If it cannot be pinned on, what A.J Pollard can be quoted as calling, his overall astounding “antipathetic nature towards to the chivalric world his ancestors had adored”, it can definitely be blamed on what A.J Pollard called his “improvident, malleable, vacillating and partisan” personality.
* Sharpe acknowledged that the grounds for war were flimsy. * ‘Charles’ sense of wounded honour had initiated the conflict’ with Spain and England had merely ‘drifted’ into was with France, ‘not least as a consequence of the Duke of Buckingham’s personal quarrels with Cardinal Richelieu’. * With this being the case, why should Parliament be blamed for failing to maintain such wars arising from personal resentment? * Reeve’s “Charles I and the Road to Personal Rule” is, unlike Sharpe’s work, critical of Charles. * Having been forced into peace, Charles was inclined to stay at peace because of any resumption of wat would require a resemption of Parliament to pay for it.
In many ways, factional rivalry has threatened the stability of government and one such key individuals that has been a cause of that is Thomas Cromwell. Having been an advocate of financial and religious reformation, Cromwell, as the King’s advisor as well as the Earl of Essex (showing that he had the King’s full support), was in a key position to make these changes, since he often was given permission to initiate these changes. However, these reformations, especially the protestant reformations, have given rise to enemies of Cromwell, the most prominent being the Duke of Norfolk, who represented the conservative faction. Thus came about the factional rivalry between the Conservatives and the Reformists. This struggle eventually led to the execution of Cromwell (1540) following the accusations of allowing heresy in Calais and his failure in handling the Anne of Cleves marriage in a way that pleased Henry.
In source 4 we also learn that much must have depended on diplomatic relations with Maximilian and Ferdinand, however Henry’s allies proved unfaithful and unreliable. Source 4, is written by a member of the Government of England. The government is who Henry and Wolsey would go to for Money for these situations. The Government did not like how much Money Henry kept asking for so this could have been reflected in Keith Randall’s report. Henry spent 1.4 millions pounds on fighting wars between 1511-25 and this set England back a far way.
He also didn’t get on with parliament. They were his rivals. Below is a table with many of the problems Charles had with reigning England, Ireland and Scotland in parliaments point of view. Money Religion Power 1629 – 1640 He spends too much money on paintings and clothes, rather than spending it on our country. 1625 – 1649 He married a French Catholic, which have made rumours that they may take over this country.
The most important factor and root for all of the problems was Charles. Due to his personality and as he ruled by Personal Monarchy, this shaped how he deployed his prerogative. His policies throughout 1625-1629 were often extreme and passed as a reaction to what he felt was a threat from parliament and an act of disloyalty on their behalf, knowingly angering them. These provocative actions were very much resented by Parliament who felt he was threatening them and provoking them, thus causing the collapse within their relationship. The next most important reason for the collapse was religion and Charles’ push toward Arminianism and absolutism.
This was always the perception of Britain bar Disraeli as it had so many other countries wanting its ownership. He of course went ahead and moved ships into the Black sea after that, however it could be seen as a reaction to Gladstone's words. In Source D Gladstone states again that “we have lost the sympathy and respect of the nations of Europe.” This shows that his irresponsibility was not only causing an effect within the British Isles but also on the wider spectrum, Europe. Again this quote was by Gladstone and of course he's going to be against his opponent of how ever many years, and because of this it comes across that this source is less reliable than others. Gladstone however receives backing from a fellow politician, Lord Derby in 1871.
This led to further economic collapse that hit its climax 1777. So in order for the government to dig its way out of this huge hole was for it to create new taxes, Calonne attempted to do this by side stepping the parliament which only resulted in a Nobles revolt and a call for an estates general. Brienne became the new minister to replace Calonne, however although his many attempts to try to fix the national debt and end the crisis he was sabotaged by Louis XVI and disgraced. Once again France was at this fragile point in its economy and with the high national debt and the high taxes that the 3rd estate, and second estate were paying it made it the perfect environment for a