Secondly, the First World War crippled the Russian economy. The country mobilised 5.3 million men (9% of the population) in 1914, and, by Christmas 1916, 15.3 million men had experienced military service. The cost of fighting the war and of maintaining such a large armed force put great strains on the economy; the National Budget, for example, rose eightfold between 1913 and 1916, loans from
Tsarina Alexandra was influenced by Gregori Rasputin, an unpopular and scruffy “holy” man, who was supposedly controlling her son’s haemophilia condition. Nicholas’s decisions at the Eastern Front caused the country's military failures; by 1917 over 1,300,000 men had been killed in battle, 4,200,000 wounded and 2,417,000 had been captured by the enemy. First World War had a disastrous impact on the Russian economy; food was in short supply and this led to rising prices. By January 1917 the price of commodities in Petrograd had increased by six times. In an attempt to increase their wages, industrial workers went on strike.
The attempt to transport millions of troops and masses of supplies to the war fronts created unbearable pressure on the Russian transport system, and it bucked under the pressure. The signalling system on which the railway network depended on broke down and this accumulated to Petrograd and Moscow receiving only a third of their food and fuel requirements, in comparison before the war
Between 1917 and 1924, Russia experienced serious unrest, mistrust and a massive split amongst the people. In March 1918, Leon Trotsky had been sent to negotiate the terms of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk. This eventually led to Russia surrendering ’62 million people (one sixth of the population), 27% of farm land (some of the best in Russia), 26% of Railways and 74% of Iron Ore and Coal’ (quote from Russia and the USSR 1905-19441 by Terry Fiehn). Furthermore, a 300 year dynasty of Romanov Tsars had come to an end when Tsar Nicholas II was forced to abdicate and later executed alongside his family. On top of that, Russia’s Provisional Government was overthrown by a minority party (the Bolsheviks) during the November Revolution of 1917 who in turn formed the world’s first ever Communist government.
Between 1915 and 1917, Italian troops only got 10 miles inside Austrian territory. But in October 1917 came the disaster of Caporetto. In this battle, in fact a series of battles, the Italians had to fight the whole Austrian Army and 7 divisions of German troops. The Italian Army lost 300,000 men. Though the Italians had a victory at Vittorio Veneto in 1918, the psychological impact of Caporetto was huge.
One of the main problems was the social problems it caused because of the loss of agricultural workers in the war led to a massive food shortage in Russia it also dint help when the tsar announced their would be bread rationing, in the war Russia also didn’t perform very well they lost 1.6 million Russian soldiers 3.9 million were wounded and 2.4 million were captured. another reason why the 1905 revolution survived was because the Tsar issued the October manifest which meant that a lot of people were happy because it allowed people to have a freedom of speech it also said that the Tsar would share his power which he had to intention of doing over time he started undoing concessions and arguing that the Duma was only a shell of democracy as it could not pass laws without the approval of the monarch, and that freedom of speech was heavily
In February 1917 the Tsar had been forced to give up his throne. Explain why this first revolution occurred. Revolution occurred because of the impact World War One had on the defeat of the Russian military; food shortages and transport dislocation in Russia. There was a shortage of weapons and soldiers were forced to fight without weapons as weapons and ammunition had become rationed. The military leadership was terrible and the Tsar took it upon himself to have the role of personal command in 1915 (as told to him by Rasputin).
Explain the economic and political effects of the First World War on Italy between 1915 and 1918 The war imposed serious strains on the Italian economy. The cost of keeping soldiers armed and fed led to a large budget deficit. So as a result they were forced to borrow heavily from abroad. Spiralling war debt ended up at 85 billion Iira, fivefold increase on 1914 figure. Due to this debt the government then resulted in printing money and this resulted in inflation.
The months before and during the Bolshevik revolution, as well as the signing of the peace treaty at Brest-Litovsk cause turmoil among the socialists and brought Russia into civil war. The Provisional Government of Russia treated the middle and lower class citizens of Russia very poorly, ignoring their needs, as well as dragging them into World War I and two civil wars in a little over two decades. The workers of Russia wanted a democratic republic, or any government that would have allowed them to make a difference, and one that would help them as much as their current government was against them (Wade 27). In 1917, Russia was at war in World War I and was suffering economically because of it, as well as loosing the lives of many of their young men in battle. The people of Russia desired to leave World War I as smoothly and as quickly as possible (Wade 29).
How far do you agree that ww1 was the main reason for the fall of the Tsar in March 1917 ? WW1 – Military Issues * Battle of Tannenburg August 1914 May - Dec 30,000 were killed or injured and 95,000 captured 500 guns captured, Germany only lost 20,000 people loss of morale ill-equipped = limited guns, shared guns food shortages – loss of famers 2200 railway wagons per month 1914, 1916 = 300 * Loss of Battle meant that the Russians had been driven out of Poland led Tsar Nicholas II to make a disastrous decisions took responsibility for Russia’s military fortunes on the Eastern Front he was away at the Front he left the government to be run by German wife (and Rasputin) army is no longer loyal he was blamed for failures of the war – taken direct control of military “Tsar Nicolas II is not fit to run a village post office” WW1 – Social Impacts * Already backward economy food shortages * To finance war they had to increase taxes, loads and borrowing money from GB and Fr printed money to pay for war prices rising over 200% between August 1914 and Xmas 1916 hyperinflation – effects the public savings (pensions) worthless hundreds of factories were closed, and thousands were put out of work (unemployment levels high). -not only were the Russians starving and poor, but some were also living without any income. shortage of fuel and coal, leaving the people cold and hungry Lack of Reforms * Very repressive with Russia, and greatly believed in his "divine right" to rule * Dumas – 4, first closed after 73 days, allowed political freedom but fundamental law ‘Duma of public anger’ * Third Duma named ‘Duma of Lords and Lackeys and did nothing After the first Duma was disbanded due to its radical ideologies Stoylpin and the Tsar decided to change and the Duma’s were run until it got to the point in