One of the reasons why this didn’t work was the downfall of communication, and disagreements within the group due to the extent of different opinions was so great causing splits and creating smaller less powerful sub divisions. The liberals wanted to keep the tsar but reduce his power and used calm no violent tactics such a discussions and meetings, but this group split; the octobrists and the kadets. The octobrists set up the duma (government) and the kadets wanted full equality and were a first major opposition voice in the duma, both groups came into being at the time of the October manifesto 1905. The social democrats wanted an empire with no rich or poor people, they wanted communism and also like the liberals didn’t use violent tactics. The Bolshevik and Menshevik split and both parties were very distinct opposing Marxist parties.
To understand and identify the aspects of the totalitarian system in both countries it's important to consider both countries history. On November the 11th 1918 Germany agreed to signed the Armistice. After Germany was forced to accept Versailles agreement by accepting guilt for WW 1. As a consequence the German people were demotivated and had no confidence in the new liberal democratic Weimar government and international forces. This resulted in risings such as the Spartacist rising where communists fuelled by the success of the Russian revolution almost occupied nearly every major city in Germany.
The time was right to take control and replace the temporary body with Lenin’s communist regime, based upon the theories of Karl Marx. Without Lenin, this revolution would have barely taken off the ground. His ideology is undoubtedly the theory behind the revolution of the people, but perhaps it is unfair to say that Lenin was fully responsible for the successful outcome - there are others who can claim a part in this Revolution. Predominantly Trotsky, who was a “fiery orator and revolutionary leader” , led the revolution and action on the ground, also he later implemented the Provisional Government in trying to attack the Soviet bodies, giving the Bolsheviks a reason for taking control. The October revolution was an uprising against the Provisional Government led by the Bolsheviks, however there is much debate surrounding who actually commanded the revolution - was it Lenin’s theory or Trotsky’s actions that led to the Bolsheviks success in October?
How did Stalin's dictatorship develop? Stalin made his way into becoming dictator by a series of manipulative and clever tactics he would use to aid his influence. After Lenin and his party took over the election of the Provisional government which had been elected after the fall of the tsarist regime through a series of well-aimed political hits and armed threats; Stalin ascended the ranks of the government through extensive manipulation and threats as well as gaining the strong loyalty of some socialist idealists. In 1922 Stalin received the majority vote to become the General Secretary of the Communist party; a role that really no one else in the party really wanted as they deemed it unimportant and much like “House-chores”. What the other members of the soviet party such as Trotsky did not realize however; was that Stalin would use the position to gain a mass of followers for his socialist ideals and would use it as a stepping stone to achieve greater political influence and manipulate his way even further in the ranks.
The workers of the world had to be “liberated” from bourgeois exploitation. As the principle communist nation of the world, Russia had a duty to spread the revolution begun in 1919 to the rest of Europe. The view of many Marxist scholars was that the proletariat had been brainwashed by the rich, and thus were not capable of instigating a workers’ revolution themselves – therefore Communism had to be introduced by force. Stalin realised that the Soviet occupation of Eastern Europe was a rare opportunity for Russia to act as this vanguard. Perhaps less importantly, though still a significant point in the domination of Eastern Europe, was the desire of Stalin to
Others indicate that their rise to power and the overthrow of the Provisional Government was more influenced by the faults and failures of the Provisional Government. The Provisional Government was never in full control of Russia, their power was shared with the Soviets, thus when the Bolsheviks and the Soviets banded together; it shoved the Provisional Government on a rocky road downwards, while the Bolsheviks rose and seized power from them. The Soviets were a great influence in the Bolsheviks surge to power; their leader, Leon Trotsky, and the Bolshevik leader, Vladimir Lenin, began working together in 1917 after Lenin was appointed head of the Bolshevik party and together they drew the support away from Kerensky and the Mensheviks, and introduced his ideas of reform to the lower and middle classes. The class system worked to the Bolsheviks advantage because all of the lower classes needed help and Lenin's ideas for revolution all coincided with the peoples wants and needs, which in turn gained Lenin and the Bolsheviks the support of the lower classes. Trotsky worked to obtain the support by going to events and giving speeches, such as the one he gave on the 22nd of October in 1917, in which he
Communism was a major unifying force after WW2. Discuss Russia’s spread of its communist regime throughout Europe led to it being a major unifying force but also the opposite. It created a union of states between other communist countries but also a fear within Western Europe. The spread of communism in Europe also affected the USA cause it to set up many organisations such as NATO and the Marshall plan to fight it. Although it unified, it also brought about separation, with the division of Germany and of Berlin.
For instance, when Mother Russia overthrew its tsar, made a revolution, became the Soviet Union, unified itself under Lenin and created an ideological structure called communism, the United States could only react with fear and trepidation. The government could not accept the simple fact that a country could exist with economic and political principles so critically opposed to democracy and industrial capitalism. The first factor is that during World War Two, the USA and the western powers had worked together with the Soviet Union to defeat Nazi Germany and its allies. However, the alliance was based solely on the fact that they had a common enemy- Germany. Once that enemy was near defeat, disagreements began to emerge.
This ultimately marked the end of Nicholas’ unlimited power as an autocratic ruler and the beginning of a constitutional monarchy. The Manifesto would grant fundamental civil liberties to the people, and create a legislative body known as the Duma through which all laws must be approved by in order to be operative. However, due to the fact that the Duma was merely a consultative body, the people were not satisfied with the law. The Duma’s ultimately represented the mouthpiece of the Tsar’s opposition and the voice of the Russian people. The outbreak of World War One in 1914 also spelt disaster for the Tsar upon his decision to take direct command of the Russian army, which meant that every military failure would now be associated with him personally and contributed to the growing sense of dissent.
When the Bolsheviks seized power in Russia in October 1917, communism came to the fore as an issue in international relations. In January 1918 Woodrow Wilson issued his “Fourteen Points”. Although the Fourteen Points were a list of specific aims, they also presented the U.S. ideological framework for international relations. The Fourteen Points promoted the principles of self-determination, open markets and collective security. Self-determination was a criticism of European imperialism but also an attack on the seizure of power by small armed groups like the Bolsheviks.