Middle-class mothers are more likely to have more of an interest in their child’s intellectual development. Bernstein identified two forms of speech pattern, the restricted code and elaborated code. According to Bernstein, most middle-class children have been socialised into both the restricted code and the elaborated code, working-class pupils are placed at a distinct disadvantage. They are less likely to understand what teachers say and are more likely to be misunderstood and criticised for what they themselves say. Bernstein’s early work comes close with being a ‘cultural deficit’ model.
The questionnaires asked questions about reading and TV viewing habits. The conclusion was that those that read complex fiction and watched documentaries for example developed a greater vocabulary and knowledge, thus doing better in school. However, working class parents often can’t support their children in the same way due to material deprivation, and therefore their children are more culturally deprived, this clearly shows that cultural factors are a main cause for social class differences in educational achievement. Use of language between different social classes is also under cultural deprivation and can cause educational achievement differences. Bernstein distinguishes between two speech codes that he associates with two social classes, one being the restricted code, which he commonly associates with the working class where they use one word answers or hand gestures to communicate.
Assess the view that the function of the education system is to select and prepare individuals for their future work roles. Both Marxists and Functionalists agree that education is an institution of socialization to prepare individuals for future work roles, however they both have very different views on the extent to how well it works. This essay will explore those ideas. Functionalists say education is like training for working life, it is based on universalistic standards that will prepare children for their future by channeling norms and values to them through schooling. Parsons used the metaphor of education as a ‘bridge’ to work based on meritocratic principles.
Many EMG children also do not have that initial push of how important education is for them. They may have a fatalistic view on where they see themselves fitting into to society which may rub on to their children. Sugarman did a lot of research on this and found it as being one of the top reasons why children can fail in education. Children who believe their future is already predetermined will not put as much focus on education as they think they will only get working-class jobs. As parents may be new to the UK or not speak English they may not understand the educational system and the application process.
This means that the most talented will get high qualifications, important jobs and therefore rewards. The least talented people will get few qualification, lower paid jobs and therefore less rewards. This theory will make students want to work harder by offering incentives such as; higher salaries or greater rewards. A criticism of this theory is that intelligence and ability have only a limited influence of educational achievement. Another view could be that Education teaches specialist skills, from one generation to the next.
They are able to manipulate the education system to their advantage which means their children have a better chance at doing well in school. Disconnected-local choosers and semi-skilled choosers are working-class parents who have a lack of cultural capital and therefore their child’s academic progress suffers as they are usually sent to ‘local’ schools which they aren’t necessarily best suited for. Children who have cultural capital also have an elaborated code (wider vocabulary) which gives them an advantage at school as it is the code used by teachers and in textbooks. The elaborated code is typically used by middle class and helps with their academic achievement. Children with a lack of cultural capital are more likely to use the restricted code (limited vocabulary) which disadvantages them at school as they feel excluded and are therefore less successful.
So, If a child is in a social group deprived of these factors he could underachieve. One example of cultural deprivation is parental interest. This is argued by sociologist JWB Douglas. Douglas argued that the most important factor affecting a child's attainment was parental interest in the child’s education. This is because if the parents lacks this they wouldn't be able to encourage and help their child with their studies in the same way others do.
The New Right also believe that they only encourage diversity in family types and therefore are bad for society. State policies and laws can be seen as assisting the family in things such as childcare therefore they are a good impact on family life. An example of this is the ‘working family tax credit’, which was developed to remove child poverty and focus benefits on children in need. Functionalists see this policy as a benefit to society, as it encourages families to form and helps parents with socialising and raising the next generation (financially). However, Marxists would disagree and say that this policy as it supports the working class mostly therefore encourages people to work at the benefit of capitalism.
I will be looking at the causes of discrimination and the effects on children’s identity. I will concentrate mainly on gender and cultural inequalities. I will be researching the concept that children are naturally more accepting of difference than adults, whose prejudices have had more time to develop. Also the effects of lateral thinking which may possibly help children to use more accurate vehicles of thought and judge situations with a more open mind. I will start by researching equality concepts, international/ national legislation and its application in the childcare setting.
Pygmalion effect is positive. Especially for the immigrant students, their good or bad performances mostly rely on the teacher’s behaviors because they lack of confidents. Tracking can be both positive and negative to students. If the students are divided in the honor group, they will try their best to maintain that good performances, same as Pygmalion effect. Conversely, if the students are divided in the weak group, they may consider themselves as the poor students according to the Looking-Glass Self theory.