Some people believe that hypnosis produces and altered state of consciousness, some believe nothing happens at all and others believe that hypnotic subjects are acting to please their hypnotherapist. However, studies which have monitored brain activity have shown that hypnosis does have a physical effect on the brain. In a famous experiment at Stanford University, students were connected to a brain imaging machine whilst looking at a black and white picture. Under hypnosis, the students were told that the picture was in fact in colour - and the brain scans
Lead researcher Dr. Phillip Shaw said, "If you have a certain variant of this gene, you have a greatly increased risk of having ADHD." In the second study, scientists found that ADHD is associated with lowered dopamine production. ADHD is a real disease, which can not be cured but only treated. According to Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacrology, scientist recorded a study after conducting research on the long usage of IR-MPH, which they found children who took the 10 month trial of the medicine showed decreased signs of ADHD symptoms. Jeffrey Newcorn’s scholarly journal about Pychopharmacrologic Tretment recognizes methylphenidate and detroamphetamine as both good medicines to help control the symptoms of ADHD.
Researchers know certain structuresof the brain that contribute to the formation of flashbulb memories, but no one really understands the whole process. Berrios tried to fill in this gap with his theory in his scholarly article Flashbulb memories and other repetitive images: A psychiatric perspective. He stated that “flashbulb memories could be formed by the activity of an ancient brain mechanism evolved to capture emotional and cognitive information relevant to the survival of the individual or group” (E.Berrios, 1999, pg.115). The severity of the incident that one experiences is also a good indicator in the creation of a flashbulb memory. Encarta states that studies that have shown that
Then I will look at the place of relaxation in hypnotherapy today and why it is important and discuss a vehicle to travel to this mental state, with progressive muscle relaxation. What is Hypnosis? People generally regard hypnosis as an altered state of awareness, from everyday waking and consciousness. They usually think of it involving a hypnotist who invokes a trance like state in which the subject is susceptible to suggestion, which can be used to help people or to entertain, as in stage hypnosis. However contrary to common belief, a hypnotic state is not a deep sleep like trance and the same state actually occurs regularly in everyday life.
Although this trial proved that hypnosis did assist in obtaining accurate information, the test was dealing with a video (not a life experience) that was viewed the same day that a hypnosis interview was taken place. In fact another study where the exact opposite occurred. Particapants in this study were told a story and asked both neutral and misleading question afterwards. The results showed that hypnosis increased memory errors (Loftus, E. F. 2003). Other studies show that hypnosis actually can make someone add additional information or give misleading information to something that they
Great strides were made in the effective treatment of mental disorders. Are we going to be able to do without all psychiatric institutions, probably not, but we have learned that we need to educate the professionals who are dedicated to the treatment of these individuals. We need to continue to effectively study the environment and what effect it has on why people act and react in the ways they do. This article has opened my eyes as to how the study of psychology has changed over the years and will continue to grow to meet the needs of an ever changing
In the modern world we are fortunate to benefit from advances in neurological equipment that has led us to a greater understanding of how the brain works, the differences in brain waves and neurological activity and therefore have an increased knowledge in the area incorporating hypnotherapy. Unfortunately, our modern world needs concrete facts in order to measure the effectiveness of treatments and as the effectiveness of hypnotherapy varies greatly from one individual to the next it is essentially not quantifiable. Therefore we can agree that there is a psychological and physical phenomena experienced through hypnosis but
You are twice as likely to have another seizure if you have a known brain injury or other type of brain abnormality. If you do have two seizures, there's about an 80% chance that you'll have more. If your first seizure occurred at the time of an injury or infection in the brain, you are more likely to develop epilepsy than if you had not had a seizure in that situation. More seizures are also likely if your doctor finds abnormalities on a neurological examination; a set of tests of the functioning of your nervous system that is performed in the doctor's office. Another thing that can help your doctor predict whether you will have more seizures is an EEG, electroencephalogram (e-LEK-tro-en-SEF-uh-LOG-ram), a test in which wires attached to your scalp record your brain waves.
Critically evaluate the extent to which the placebo effect is just a nuisance variable to be controlled The placebo effect is a simulated or a useless treatment for a medical or mental condition which deceives the patient into thinking it is curing them. Usually, these patients will find their health and wellbeing will improve over time, whether it actually does or they just perceive it doesn’t matter, this is called the placebo effect. Common examples of placebos are sugar pills, homeopathy and ‘psychic surgery’. While it sounds as if the deception is the cause of the patient’s improved health, it has been shown that placebos can have a positive effect on a patient who knows they are being given a placebo, when compared with a control group who received a placebo but were not informed of the deception (Kaptchuk TJ, Friedlander E, Kelley JM, et al, 2010). The most common procedure for using a placebo is when a patient is given a useless pill and is told that the pill will improve their condition.
Research helps understand the states of consciousness, sensory experiences, emotions, motivations, and more (Willingham, 2007). Criticism of behaviorism Behaviorism failed to answer questions, explains aspects and human processes that cognitive psychology was able to do. Behaviorism’s main focus was what could be observed in behavior and why a behavior was done with a reward. Cognitive psychology came about because of what behaviorism was unable to explain and the criticisms that came with it. Such as, why behaviorism could not explain why a person did something without being given a reward.