How Do the Physical Properties of the Ears Help the Brain Decode and Interpret Sounds?

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How do the physical properties of the ears help the brain decode and interpret sounds? Sound travels as osccialtion through some medium. The function of ears is to transmit the sound into electric messages which are sent to the brain which perceives and interprets the sound. Ears consist of three parts the outer ear, middle and inner ears. The outer ear consists of the pinna which collects the sound and transmits it to the ear canal, which amplifies the sound and transmits it to the tympanic membrane, the division between the outer ear and the middle ear. The middle ear consist of tympanic membrane, osiccles (three bones connected in sequence: hammer, anvil and stirrup) and oval window. When the sound vibration from the outer ear reaches the tympanic membrane it vibrates at the same rate as the vibration from the outer ear. The vibrating tympanic membrane causes ossicles to vibrate, which transmits the vibration to the oval window. The sound is amplified when transmitted as the tympanic membrane is much larger then the oval window, and the bigger force is needed to transmit the vibration from the air module to the fluid filled cochlea of the inner ear. This amplification is also aided by lever-like action of ossicles. This helps to permit the loss of sound energy. Two muscles connected to the ossicles (stapedius and tensor tympani) may damp down this amplification when tensed to protect the inner ear from the outgoing noise and self-generated sound. After sound passes through the oval window it reaches the inner ear, which is the innermost part of the ear. It consists of the fluid-filled cochlea, basilar membrane, organ of corti, tectorial membrane and hair cells. The cochlea consists of vestibular, middle and tympanic canals. After the sound reaches the cochlea, oscillation causes the fluid vibration, which in turn vibrates the basilar membrane, which

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