Before the Emancipation of Serfs by Alexander II, peasants were tied to the land they tended so they couldn’t migrate and depopulate Russia. After they had been emancipated the peasants had to buy their land and spend almost the rest of their lives paying back redemption payments. The peasants first struck back at the Government by attacking their Landlords property. Some groups of peasants went as far as to chase down and kill their landlords and burn the property. These attacks were triggered by the spreading of terrorist acts from the towns and cities to the countryside.
How did the Bolsheviks take control between 1917 and 1918 In 1917, after the revolution, Nicholas II was abdicated and Tsarism ended. He got Russia involved in the war and while he was at the front ordering troops, people in Petrograd were protesting about lack of food. This, and the war brought the end of a state controlled by a Tsar. A Provisional government was formed of docters, bankers and other people with important jobs. The Petrograd soviet recognized the authority of the Provisional Government because they carried out eight measures.
They used terror slave labour and seizure of goods, and anyone found to be hiding grain was shot. This meant many peasants starved and the lack of money led to rationing increasing government control over the people. This policy was brutal as it caused death, famine and civil war. It allowed the Bolsheviks to maintain power by winning the Civil War, because they could focus on production of military
News of the violent acts believed to have been ordered by the Tsar himself quickly spread throughout European Russia, initiating huge responses from the people, provoking a rebellion, which would involve over 400,000 people. These huge strikes brought the government and economy to a complete halt. Strikes occurred throughout the country; peasants attacked the homes of their landlords, embracing the opportunity to revolt; the Grand Duke Sergei, the tsar's uncle, was assassinated in February; the transport system all but ground to a halt. Russia seemed to be on the point of imploding. Sailors on the battleship 'Potemkin' mutinied in June and to add more woes to the government, it became clear that on top of all of this, Russia had lost the Russo-Japanese War; a war that was meant to have bound the
Revolution occurred because of the rise of the opposition, which consisted of the army, protestors and civilians. Demonstrations and food riots suddenly broke out in the capital city of Petrograd. A general strike had spread throughout the city and some soldiers had joined demonstrators, this had caused the Tsar to command the military chief to fire on the crowd. Dozens of people had died and the rest were reminded of “Bloody Sunday.” As a result the demonstration had tuned into a revolution aiming to overthrow the government. The Tsar had lost all support and control because of his actions and this led to him abdicating the
Lenin was responsible for the Bolsheviks growing hold on power in the years 1917-24. He was responsible for changing strategy with the April thesis and the overthrow of the provisional government. This gained him popularity and support from the Russian populous. To strengthen power he dissolved the constituent assembly in 1918. His harsh policy of war communism and the use of the checka in the years of the civil war, removed opposition to his power.
The first revolution in 1917 overthrew the Tsar, hoping that a new government would be formed, and that this new government would end the war. The war had caused the price of food to be multiplied by seven, had weakened the government, which received less money since alcohol sale had been forbidden, and the state had a monopoly on alcohol. The soldiers sent to the front were exhausted and had lost hope, and many of them did not want to fight anymore. Thus, when the Provisional Government came to power and did not do anything to end the war, people were still hungry and angry. This is very important because food is one of the most important and basic things people want, and lots of revolutions broke out because of famine.
They attacked the NEP and the lack of free debate in the party, due to Lenin’s Decree of Party unity the ‘United Opposition’ was seen as a threat and they should be removed. Therefore the party removed all the members of the “United Opposition”, and elections in the city committees put new “loyal” members in control of Leningrad and Moscow. Now only the right-wing people were still in power beside Stalin, in 1927 there was a crisis of grain supply. The party set new measures as: 1) all soldiers should be sent into the country side to request grain. 2) All hoarded grain was to be confiscated.
To what extent did the New Economic Policy (NEP) fulfil its aims by 1924? The New Economic Policy (NEP) was introduced by Vladimir Lenin in March 1921, after the failure of War Communism in increasing food production in Russia. It also aimed to appease opposition to the Bolshevik party, especially after the Kronstadt mutiny in the same month. Prior to this, the Bolsheviks used terror and coercion to force the peasants into producing more grain. There was suspicion of grain hoarding, which was further proof of the need for terror.
Why did the 1905 Revolution fail? The 1905 Revolution was a major crisis for the government and came as a result of both long and short term causes. A month after Bloody Sunday, half a million workers went on strike in protest at the massacre, by the end of the year this had risen to 2.7 million. The strikes affected the railways, so food could not be delivered to the towns and cities., the peasants started revolting by stealing land from their landowners. Eventually national minorities engaged in widespread protests.