Society as a whole is more and more splitting up into two great hostile camps, into two great classes directly facing each other: Bourgeoisie and Proletariat” (Marx and Engels 1848). Social class, therefore, is based upon economic criteria and conflict occurs between those who own the means of production (bourgeoisie) and the wage-labourers (proletariat). As well as having economic control over the proletariat, the bourgeoisie also have the power to determine the superstructure; the ruling class can distort perceptions of the world and hide the true nature of social relationships and the exploitation of the proletariat and, above all, promote bourgeoisie interests. Marx defines production as workers selling their labour for wages in order to exchange money for commodities that will meet their most basic needs. As Marx
In one side there is the working class fighting for his rights, and on the other side middle and upper class seeking their profits. As a result, frictions occur among the classes leading to a Democratic revolution. The industrial revolution has an important effect on America, but it is also a threat that creates frictions among classes
4. Believed industrialism forced people into two rival categories: the middle class and the working class. These classes would always fight for political power, but the middle class would always rule because it owned the factories, property, and money and needed to oppress the workers to stay in power. 5. He advised workers to form unions that would overthrow the middle class.
The working class want the ‘things’ that they see the middle classes with but they can't afford them so they resort to crimes such as stealing as a means of getting what they want. The explanation the marxists would give about the cause of crime is the working class fighting back against oppression and making their own means of acquiring wealth and the life of luxury. Marxists have many explanations of what causes crime, Traditional Marxists say that capitalism causes crime, the term we use for this is criminogenic capitalism. Crime is created by the structure of the capitalist society, the ruling class exploit the working class as they own the means of production. The working class gain a desire for material things, but breaking the law may be the only way that they can acquire the consumer good that they desire.
Everybody has different values. So with that in mind, conflict will occur when individuals or nations have a lack of acceptance and understanding of these different values. Conflicts with differing interests occur when individuals or nations combat for their personal or nation goals as a whole, often ignoring the organizational goals and well-being, or other nation’s goals and well-being. Scarce resources can cause a lot of conflict. Especially between two countries.
According to Marx – in a capitalist society, the economic relationship of exploitation requires ideologies in the superstructure to cover up inequality – they are not innocent/neutral because they justify inequality and serve the interest of powerful groups. Marx argued that the organisation of production in a society shapes the nature of society – refers to this as base/superstructure. The base of the infrastructure is the economy – determines the ideas of society and superstructure – social, cultural, political and ideological parts of society. All history can be divided into five epochs/period; primitive consumerism – everything is shared, in class
A particular Marxist view of the relationship between crime and social class is known as criminogenic capitalism. For Marxists, crime is inevitable in capitalism because capitalism is criminogenic. Capitalism is based on the exploitation of the working class – that is, on using them as a means to and end (profit), whatever the human cost of doing so. It is therefore particularly damaging to the working class and this may give rise to crime. Firstly Marxists believe that poverty may mean that crime is the only way the working class can survive therefore this results in the form of a relationship between crime and social class.
His view was basically seen as social class would always be in conflict and owners would want higher profit and the workers would want higher wages. He thought that this conflict would lead to revolution. Marxists believes that the definition of health and ill-health s strong-minded by the upper class. They also believe that doctors only give out their services to upper class because the upper classes have more power and money and can enjoy a higher standard of health Marxists also claims that the government in a capitalist society allows companies to add to ill-health in society: Tobacco- These companies cause cancer by selling cigarettes and this could also lead to other health conditions. Alcohol- Could cause somebody to become an alcoholic and cause other health conditions.
Assess the usefulness of Marxist approaches to an understanding of crime and deviance in contemporary society Marxist criminologists argue that the state passes laws which support ruling-class interests, and maintain its control and power over the subject class. They put forward the view that laws do not reflect value consensus, but instead reflect the values of ruling class ideology. Therefore, laws work towards false class consciousness, as laws only benefit the ruling minority. Many Marxists also argue that there are a vast number of laws protecting property, and Snider (1993) argued the state is often reluctant to pass laws which might threaten profitability. She also argued capitalist states often pour large amounts of money into attracting business; for example offering new investors tax concessions and grants.
In fact, since Marx adopted the theory of conflict, the capitalist exploiter in society is experiencing at the extreme, the proletarian consciousness of the triggers and the fall of the capitalist society and the coming of communism. The Marxist perspective also tries to apply this conflicting