Essentially, the police will base their use of assets in a manner to reduce crime by building ties within the community and having a presence in neighborhoods. This can be an effective method because many argue that seeing the police in an area a majority of the time deters criminals from acting in those areas. A downfall of the COP theory is that political influence can force a department to pool resources in an area where crime is not as prevalent in order to keep good relations with a major tax base. Often times the poorer neighborhoods do not feel as though they are receiving enough of a police presence. The contingency theory is based on the approach to achieve specific goals, such as crime control.
Information Technology in policing can be used to optimize these five components through (1) analyzing patrol staffing and resource allocation, (2) predicting time and location of future incidents based on previous criminal patterns, (3) identifying suspects/persons-of-interest whom are likely to reoffend, (4) analyzing predation patterns and (5) conducting vulnerability/threat assessments, providing real-time traffic control, predicting increased criminal activity, suggesting best locations for random DUI screenings, et cetera (Pearsall, 2010) (Adams, 2012) (Morgan, Predictive Policing Symposium: Technical Breakout Session, 2012). Random street patrols are most effective in reducing crime when performed by senior officers that are
They are rare and hard to get access to, having very strict licensing laws. The pro-arming argument is that the Police would be a deterrent and would protect the officers. People who say that arming the Police would be a deterrent use other armed countries as an example of why we should have it; I don't believe this is an accurate view of the matter. Worldwide 2011 crime statistics show that in the USA there were 12, 664 murders, and 8,583 were caused by firearms. Compared to the UK where 648 murders where only 58 were caused by firearms.
This means that criminals don’t have to worry about the police being able to defend themselves with guns and so it makes it easier for them to commit crimes. Using armed police was successful in Bristol, because in 2003, police were armed to take the tension of gang related crimes away. Police were then able to go back into the inner – city areas unarmed without have to worry about armed gang related crimes. Point Most countries in Europe and North America have armed police forces, in part to deter criminal acts, but also to protect officers working in an armed or dangerous environment’ . Armed criminals operate in at least some areas of virtually every jurisdiction.
In this case, the broken window is a signal that the community in New York was neglected, causing others to commit other types of crimes too. Once the window is repaired, people will feel less neglected and refrain from committing other crimes. However, recent studies and experiments, discussed in Caitlin M. Jones’ article “Genetic and Environmental Influences on Criminal Behavior”, show results that both contradict and support Gladwell, stating that genes also play a vital role in the outcomes of individuals’ behaviors. Other theories have also emerged; one of the more surprising ones coming from economist Rick Nevin, discussed in Shankar Vedantam’s “Research Links Lead Exposure, Criminal Activity”. Here, his theory argues that a high level of lead exposure leads to more violent behavior due to lead being a neurotoxin that causes impulsivity and aggression.
Increased police, probation officers and social workers contact proved most effective at gun control. Research has shown law enforcement programs to be more effective than gun laws. In this case, the most efficient programs combined both supportive and punitive strategies to reduce gun violence. Buyback programs have been shown to be even less effective than laws. This clearly shows that the most effective methods involve ‘old-school’ police work where the police department, probation officers and social workers join efforts at identifying and targeting the biggest threats.
It altered the basic philosphy of policing and stated that the police should work closely with the community instead of being an inward-looking community (Walker & Katz, Chapter 1, Community Policing, 2011). The Chicago Alternative Policing Strategy was established to help in the prevention and to decrease the crime rate in the community and to work closely with the residents. According to Innes (2006)There were findings indicate that people living in the CAPS prototype districts had significantly higher levels of satisfaction with police fighting crime than people living in matched comparison areas who were not subject to the CAPS program. The findings also indicate that the residents of the CAPS prototype communities were only marginally more satisfied with police keeping order than those living in non-CAPS communities (Lombardo, Olson, & Staton, 2010). their analysis demonstrates that did not have uniform effects across all sections of Chicago’s population.
These cameras are usually implemented in high traffic public areas such as train stations and shopping centres. As well as major public areas, they are also put in dark, high crime areas such as parks or ally ways. The use of CCTV cameras is meant to deter criminals from participating in criminal acts, although their effectiveness as well as moral acceptance is questioned my many commentators. Despite the questions regarding its effectiveness, a study undergone in 2012 shows that the implication of 25 CCTV cameras saw 16 of them successfully lower crime rates, 7 resulted in no change and the final 2 saw an increase in crime. David Brooks, CCTV camera expert, states "People always expect that CCTV is going to do more than it's actually designed for... We tend to look at CCTV as a detection tool, but there's no real detection going on."
Nevertheless, both locations have experienced a substantial decline in crime, however, as determined by the Uniform Crime Report, UCR, this seems to be interpreted as a standard fact nationwide (Fbi.gov, 2010). According to the Uniform Crime Report's data (Fbi.gov, 2010), the city of Los Angeles has more crimes reported in the year 2010 compared to reports from Long Beach. Violent crimes according to national and regional figures, has become more of an issue for both of these cities. In 2010, Los Angeles with a population of 3,841,707, reported a total of 21,484 violent crimes, while Long Beach with a population of 462,267 reported a total of 2,720 violent crimes (Fbi.gov, 2010). A startling 293 murders were reported in 2010 in Los Angeles and 32 murders for Long Beach and yet it is even more shocking to know there are far more forcible rapes that occur in both of these areas.
Now don’t get me wrong, there are some nice parts of Lancaster City such as Main Square where Central Market and Fulton Theatre are, but most of Lancaster city is dirty and full of crime. Lancaster has a population of 56, 347 people. Visiting Lancaster you would never guess how dangerous of a city it actually is but Lancaster has one of the highest crime rates in America compared to communities of all sizes. On a scale of 1 to 100 with 100 being the safest and 1 being the most dangerous Lancaster is a 9. The violent crime rate itself is also one of the