Therefore there is reason to believe that genes may not affect gender development that much as there are a lot of people nowadays who are transgender. However, hormones can also have an effect on gender development. Case studies such as the Batista family show that hormones can have a huge effect on gender development as Imperato-Mcginley et al, found that four children in Dominica were born with female genitalia and were raised as girls, but they produced large amounts of testosterone at puberty and
The peripheral nervous system, also part of the nervous system, transmits information to and from the nervous system. The biological approach also suggests chemical processes in the brain are responsible for many different psychological functioning for example, chemicals such as hormones. Imbalances of certain hormones affect behaviour. The approach states that the female hormone oestrogen gives females caring and gentle characteristics while the male hormone testosterone is linked to aggression. This hormone was investigated by Dabbs et al, where testosterone levels in prisoners where compared to the level of crime committed.
Hormones are produced by the glands and a few organs spread in different places of the body. According to Morris and Maisto (2002) the glands engaged in hormone production are thyroid, parathyroids, pineal, pituitary, gonads, and adrenal glands. Pancreas and some parts of the digestive tract also play role in the production of certain hormones which working together with glands has an effect of many other areas of the human body. Genes are which give us different hereditary characteristics. They do have an effect on behavior; but, not single genes.
According to Nevid (2008) in his book, Psychology: Concepts and Applications, the biggest argument related to gender identity is the nature versus nurture, the role played by hereditary and environmental factors as well as their relationship to gender identity. In addition, there is evidence that hormones have an effect, and plays a pivotal role in determining one’s gender. This paper will discuss gender identity, the interaction of hormones and behavior and examine the biological, psychological and environmental aspects and influences on sexual differentiation. ** Hormones are the chemical messengers that produced in different glands and are in general responsible for the body to function on the proper chemical level. As needed hormones are secreted to the site of action to allow certain biological activity to take
Testosterone has two main effects on the body, androgenic and anabolic. The androgenic effect has control over masculine traits such as deepening of the voice and facial hair. The anabolic effect has control over the building up of muscles. There is a common misconception in society that steroids are the only type of performance enhancing drug. In actuality, steroids are only one type of the vast variety of performance enhancing drugs.
Homeostatic Imbalance/Unit 8 Assignment William Thornbury Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology SC121 Instructor: Eric D. Steelman, DHSc(c), MPH, MS, RLATG 10/17/14 Homeostatic Imbalance The endocrine system helps regulate and maintain various body functions by synthesizing (making) and releasing hormones, chemical messengers. The major areas of control and integration include responses to stress and injury, growth and development, absorption of nutrients, energy metabolism, water and electrolyte balance, reproduction, birth, and lactation. The endocrine system is composed of glands that release their hormones directly into the bloodstream for chemical signaling of target cells. Typically, the body synthesizes hormones in one part and transports it to another through the bloodstream or lymph. Endocrine glands have a rich blood supply through which hormones travel to reach their target organs.
adrenal medulla/adrenaline * Paracrine - that secretes hormones that affect adjacent cells e.g. gastric mucosa/gastrin/gastric pits. * Autocrine – regulate their own avtivity by the secretion of hoirmone e.g. interstitial cells of testis/testosterone Each target cell in the body is regulated only by those hormones to which it has receptor molecules , and not y others.different cells may respond in different ways to the same hormone – the transduction machinery of different target cells ‘reads’ the hormone signal in different ways. Blood hormone concentrationare usually governed by negative feedback control – a reduction in concentration stimulates additional secretion and an increase in concentration inhibits further secretion.
Males normally have more of the male sex hormones called androgens than females. However, some males and females are born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), which causes them to have significantly higher levels of androgens than their non-affected peers (Rathus, Nevid, & Fichner-Rathys, 2011). Scientists have studied children with CAH in order to understand how their extra androgen levels affect behavior.
10/15/12 English Essay #2 Mishmash of the Sexes Gender roles more or less have been definitive for a very long time. Well more like since the beginning of humankind. The recent years have shown us that it’s not absolute because the changes brought forth by modernization. In the article “The Gender Blur”, Deborah Blum addresses this issue of why a boy is generally different from a girl and no not just the physical differences. Her argument is that it is due to testosterone (and yes for all not overtly familiar with biology, females also have testosterone) levels on a certain individual.
Hormones and the menstrual cycle The menstrual cycle is complex and controlled by many different glands and the hormones they produce. A brain structure called the hypothalamus causes the nearby pituitary gland to produce certain chemicals, which prompt the ovaries to produce the sex hormones oestrogen and progesterone. The menstrual cycle is a biofeedback system, which means each structure and gland is affected by the activity of the others. The four main phases of the menstrual cycle are menstruation, the follicular phase, ovulation and the luteal phase. Menstruation Menstruation is the elimination of the thickened lining of the uterus (endometrium) from the body through the vagina.