Substance abuse among women while pregnant is happening more frequently than it should. A good way to help educate young women about the danger of substance abuse while pregnant is to educate them while they are young. A program at high schools could be developed to show young women the effects of children that were born to a mother that abused drugs or alcohol. Also, a lesson on pregnancy, such as informing young women the importance of pre natal health care, and also the do’s and don’ts of pregnancy. Drug abuse is a major social and medical problem in the United States.
Unplanned pregnancies constitute to the mother feeling more depressed as she now is expecting something she never intended to happen. Often, unplanned pregnancies may cause aspects like premature delivery and other complications, which bring more worry from a mother’s point of view. Unwanted pregnancies can often have a long term affect on mothers simply because the mother now has to look after a baby when she did intend to or expect to do so. Therefore, such a factor is regarded as high-risk when associated with Post-Natal Depression. In terms of the hormonal changes when giving birth, many hormones change in the body, thus triggering a greater chance of the mother suffering from Post-natal depression.
Educating more mothers on the consequences of abusing substances while pregnant will help reduce the number of children affected by this significant problem. Introduction This paper examines the effects that maternal substance abuse has on children before and after birth and some of the barriers
Female Sex Hormones A woman’s body has two major hormones that regulate the monthly cycle. Each cycle has the purpose of producing children. The two main hormones that regulate the cycle and determine fertility are estrogen and progesterone. Each of these main hormones plays a big role in our reproductive health.The newborn male or female has estrogen in their own system for their mother.A female child gets more estrogen produced as they get mature. At puberty the estrogen causes breast development and the maturation of the vagina and ovaries.
However for some women the physical and emotional symptoms that come from menopause can be difficult. Menopause involves hormonal changes all around the body and can cause physical symptoms. When the ovaries stop producing oestrogen and progesterone (the female sex hormones) the oestrogen levels can drop over years. This can cause hot flashes, night sweats and mood swings. During menopause there are many changes that will take place.
Adolescence is a time of egocentrism as the individual moves from depending on family to attempting to develop an independent self. The adolescent moves through this stage facing many pressures including peer pressure, substance use and abuse, dating, sexuality, and change in family relationships. Even though the needs are met during middle childhood and adolescence, these stages of development are crucial because middle childhood development brings many changes and adolescence development includes much personal turmoil. Adolescence begins when a flood of hormones triggers puberty, usually between the age of 10 and 14. The release of sex-specific hormones of androgens and estrogens by the gonads produce physical and psychological changes.
Dr. Perry began discussing the different ways in which these chemicals can be imbalanced; inutero insult, early development inattention, and post traumatic stress. Focusing on the first two Dr. Perry began explaining how the brain’s template response for stress response can affect the duration of the life of a child. Meaning: The information I received from Dr. Bruce Perry’s lecture turned a lot of reflection to adoption and single mothers. The reflection that came from single mothers and the development of a child’s brain template for stress response from a disruption in early development strikes a chord with me. I was raised by a single mother and after reflection on Dr. Perry’s theories I found myself analyzing myself due to the disruptions from my single mother.
Since she is at the age when puberty is just starting to begin, I found observing Elizabeth would be most beneficial for me in understanding the developmental changes. Most adolescent girls start their physical transition to adulthood around the age of 10 (Berk,2010.p363). Physical changes can include hormonal changes, growth spurts and muscle-fat makeup (Berk,2010.p363). Hormonal changes in girls are caused by the change in estrogen level, which causes the breast, uterus and vagina to mature (Berk,2010 p.363). After interacting with my sister, I noticed changes in her height, weight, and physical appearance.
Whether the problem or issue is positive of negative it can affect one’s life. The cases that will be discussed are that of adolescent, mature adult, and those who are physically disabled. Anna: Adolescent Sexuality As with any adolescent girl, Anna is growing up and developing into a young lady. Who through the course of her gaining knowledge of not only herself but the outside would, she will encounter situations that could involve sex. In her current situation Anna may have an increasing anxiety about sexual intercourse, as she may feel torn between her boyfriend whom she cares for and her parent’s approval.
The reasons teens give for early sexual encounters are peer pressure, curiosity, and the idea that "everyone does it." Girls also cite pressure from boys as a top reason, and girls who mature earlier and look older are more likely to be sexually active than those who mature later (Dunn, Bartee, & Perko, 2003). Males 15 to 17 stated they lost their virginity younger than they would have preferred and sighted peer pressure as the reason. Young girls stated they lost their virginity because of peer pressure from other boys. Males tend to lose their virginity because they want to “get it over with,” not to be the only virgin in their group of friends and to be more popular.