The state is corrupt and corrupting. Bakunin believed ‘there is nothing more dangerous for a man’s morality than the habit of commanding’. The state is also destructive. It encourages individuals to fight on their behalf, at the expense of others. As Randolph Bourne put it, ‘war is the health of the state’.
John Locke versus Niccolo Machiavelli Despite their contradictions on “sovereignty”, John Locke and Niccolo Machiavelli (two philosophers of the Renaissance era) shared one conspicuous concern, and that is their concern for the betterment of society. It is plain to see that both philosophers did have common ways of thinking regarding what a ruler should and should not do. It is ‘how’ a ruler should behave in order to win sovereignty of his state that led to a divergence in their opinions. I certainly am inspired with the Lockean way of thinking, but I am not sure how realistic such a way of thinking is when applied to our modern times. The ‘Lockean Liberalism’ is a paradox only in theory.
The protagonists in both texts see the pitfalls of their respective ruling bodies from which they directly suffer. The characterizations of both of the protagonists are strikingly similar, as well as their fates when they choose to rebel. Not only do the characteristics of the protagonists correspond to one another, the prosecuting governments are equivalent in both texts as well. The manners in which they exercise control over their fictional societies are very much alike, even though the structures of the societies they govern are completely different. By observing aspects such as these it is very easy to outline the major similarities and differences in the two texts.
Civil Society in Ancient Greece: The Case of Athens by Roderick T. Long Author’s note: This article is a follow-up to my earlier article "The Athenian Constitution: Government by Jury and Referendum" and should be read in conjunction with it. Some writers have so confounded government with society, as to leave little or no distinction between them; whereas they are not only different, but have different origins. Society is produced by our wants, and government by our wickedness; the former promotes our happiness positively by uniting our affections, the latter negatively by restraining our vices. The one encourages intercourse, the other creates distinctions. The first is a patron, the last a punisher.
In which, society have their own conscience and beliefs replaced by those imposed from above. Secondly, this essay will show that ‘The Knife of Never Letting Go’ expounds that the human condition is completely corrupted and fraudulent. The inhabitants within ‘The Knife of Never Letting Go’ are living in a overly dystopian world, where all males are exposed to the ‘germ’, which projects each individuals thoughts and beliefs into pictures and sound, called ‘the Noise’. The protagonist, Todd, lives in a town ruled by the evil autocrat, Mayor Prentiss, who dictates the lower class in society in a malevolent and spiteful manner, as shown by the character of ‘Big Brother’ in ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’. Finally with these conceptions of the novels arguments concerning the human condition it shall be shown that ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ is more accurate than ‘The Knife of Never Letting Go’, because of the idea that society is ruled by a number of different inconspicuous and discreet ways as shown in ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’.
Many political philosophers tried to justify their own society; others paint pictures of idealized states or social worlds very different from anything experienced to date. As one of history’s most prolific political philosophers, Niccolo Machiavelli’s works were profound enough that Machiavellian became a commonly used word. While his works are often perceived as cynical or unethical, he did not set out to provoke controversy or suggest cruelty as a way to control a state. Rather, he set forth to establish courses of action, or a code of conduct, that would ultimately lead to the preservation of the state and the respect of its people. His principle of authority and power, with a goal of preservation, creates a fusion of antique and modern thought of power, reflecting the reality of the world.
Consequently, the people feel that the government sees itself as a unity with its’ people and encourages them to depend on the government because they are on your side. The satire is that the government deceits the people to make it seem like situations are done in the people’s welfare. It is also evident that both Orwell and Brothers criticize the humanities for their ruthlessness in both of their satirical artworks. In 1984, O’Brien, for example is an unusual character, however
However this source was written by Polydore Vergil, an Italian humanist who came to England and wrote the History of England, his analysis of Wolsey wasn’t very good as they’d had a personal feud due to Wolsey being jealous and Vergil spent a brief period in prison. So this source can be taken with a pinch of salt however it may have some truth as it was written after Wolsey had fallen from power, so Vergil was looking back at an entire career of Wolsey’s and knew that whatever he did write, Wolsey could not have him punished for. Source 2 agrees with source 1, as source 2 talks about how Wolsey treated the nobility which supports where source 1 says ‘his hostility towards nobles created great irritation’ also in source 2 it talks about bowing ‘before his Majesty’ while this would technically mean king Henry, as it says in source 1, Wolsey ‘considered himself the equal of kings’ and so it shows how arrogant
Assess the changing roles and responsibilities of the Senate during the reign of Tiberius. INTRODUCTION Although characterised as the reign of terror in the Tacitean tradition, Tiberius was very effective in maintaining the dyarchy with the Senate established by Augustus. Due to his conservative Claudian background, Tiberius wished to see the Senate act as an autonomous body and even extended its role to incorporate judicial and legislative functions whilst consulting it on matters regarding foreign policy. Ancient historians are generally negative in regards to Tiberius’ relationship with the senate due to their inherent political bias led by the Tacitean view. Modern historians however provide a more balanced perspective attributing the loss of the Senates power largely to their subservience rather than the tyrannical nature of the principate.
The Renaissance was a time period filled to the brim with intellectual, creative and learned people who have indeed shaped the world of philosophy into what is today. Two of the Renaissance’s, and possibly history’s, most influential philosophers are Italian born Niccolo Machiavelli and English philosopher Thomas Hobbes, each of whom have both conflicting and shared beliefs. Machiavelli views mankind as a body of inherently bad beings, while Hobbes believes that men are neither inherently good or bad, but that in a state of nature men are very selfish and greedy, only looking out for themselves. Each of the two philosophers views human nature differently. Machiavelli’s philosophy about the nature of man is that man as a whole is mostly bad and while retaining a few good qualities will lean towards his own self-interests when all things are equal; “that man has qualities that will bring him either praise or blame”.