Hiv/Aids and Its Oral Complications. Essay

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HIV AIDS and Oral complications of HIV disease HIV infection Human influenza virus (HIV) , the cause of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), continues to spread, being described as a global health emergency by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2003. Infection transmitted via, Semen Cervical secretions Blood routes of transmission- Sexual intercourse (vaginal and anal) Contaminated blood, blood products and organ donations contaminated needles ( intravenous drug abuse, injection, needle tract injury ) Vertical transmission (parentally, perinatally, breast-feeding) The virus HIV belongs to the lentivirus group of the retrovirus family. There are at least two types, HIV-1 and HIV-2. Retroviruses are characterized by the possession of the enzyme reverse transcriptase, which allows viral RNA to be transcribed into DNA, and then incorporated into the host cell genome. Reverse transcription is an error-prone process with a significant rate of misincorporation of bases. This, combined with a high rate of viral turnover, leads to considerable genetic variation and a diversity of viral subtypes. Life cycle 1. Entry and integration- Infection of a CD4+ cell occurs via a direct interaction between the gp120 envelope proteins and a conserved CD4 binding site. Binding of CD4 to gp120 is not sufficient for cell entry, and a family of co-receptors has been identifi ed, the normal function of which is to bind small chemotactic peptides termed ‘chemokines’. The ability of HIV to infect different cell types depends on the ability of gp120 to bind differentially to these different chemokine receptors. • viruses with gp120 that preferentially binds the CCR5 chemokine receptor found on cells of the monocyte/ macrophage series (macrophage tropic) • viruses that bind preferentially to the CXCR4 chemokine receptor found

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