History Terms Essay

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History Review Define Terms • Crusades: A medieval military expedition, one of a series made by Europeans to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims in the 11th, 12th, and 13th centuries. • Hinduism: A major religious and cultural tradition of the Indian subcontinent, developed from Vedic religion. Started in the Indus Valley, in 3000 BC. • Buddhism: a religion indigenous to the Indian subcontinent that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs, and practices largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, who is commonly known as the Buddha. The Buddha lived and taught in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th centuries BCE. Buddhism originated in India along the Gangi River in the 6th century BCE. • Hajj: the largest annually occurring pilgrimage in the world, and one of the five pillars of Islam, a religious duty that must be carried out by every able-bodied Muslim who can afford to do so at least once in his or her lifetime. • Byzantium: The city was later renamed Nova Roma by Constantine the Great, but popularly called Constantinople and briefly became the imperial residence of the classical Roman Empire. the capital city of the Eastern Roman or Byzantine Empire, the Latin and the Ottoman Empire. It was founded in AD 330, at ancient Byzantium as the new capital of the Roman Empire by Constantine the Great, after whom it was named. • Charlemagne: (742 –814), also known as Charles the Great or Charles I,was the founder of the Carolingian Empire, reigning from 768 until his death. He expanded the Frankish kingdom, adding Italy, subduing the Saxons and Bavarians, and pushed his frontier into Spain. • Cerealization: Many agricultural practices that allowed Europeans between 1000 and 1300 to cultivate most of the land in Europe (E.g. Crop rotation, Use of draft animals,

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