History of the Ussr Essay

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1855-1991, Tsarism and Communism Russia and the population and hierarchy Population of Russia 1812 – Forty One Million 1913 – One Hundred and Sixty Six Million In the nineteenth century Russia was a predominately rural society. Ninety three percent of Russians were peasants. Very few lived in towns and cities. Moscow – Capital of old Russia. Typified Traditional Russia. Tsars were crowned in Moscow St Petersburg – Built by Peter the Great on the Baltic Marshes as a window on Europe. Centre of European influence. Official capital of Russia since 1712 Russia’s Economy Economic • Russia in the nineteenth century was overwhelmingly a rural society • In 1929 Stalin said Russia was behind the West by around 150 years • Despite signs from 1850 onwards the Russian Industrial Revolution did not really begin until the 1930s when Stalin implemented his Five Year Plans • Russian transport infrastructure was poor: bad communications mainly due to the snow, ice, buckled roads, snapped rails and frozen rivers • Russia had very long cold winters. UK Winter – December to February, Russian Winter – October to April • In 1706 Peter the Great changed the capital of Russia from Moscow to St Petersburg Political Autocracy – Russia was never a democracy, always an autocracy: one person has ultimate rule. Russia had one Tsar and no parliament. The Tsar and the Royal Family were an absolute monarchy – the Tsars were emperors and had ultimate power. Russia was so vast it needed this style of rule. The Royal Family in Russia from 1613 were the Romanovs; the Last Romanov to rule Russia was Tsar Nicholas II from 1894 until 1917 Army – Vast, One Million men in 1826 Serfdom – Russian peasants called Serfs. 1861 – Emancipation of the Serfs. Serfs were not slaves but had obligations to their landlords who,
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