Before the birth of the modern penitentiary at Walnut Street (Philadelphia) in 1790, prisoners endured unimaginable squalor” (Roth, 2011, p. 86). With the implementation of the new correctional system many changes took place including the way the prisoners were housed, treated, and the way they spent their days. As we have learned the Walnut Street Jail in Philadelphia is considered the birthplace of the American penitentiary. As the article Walnut Street Prison states most prisons were typically built in a U shape with large rooms. The original role for prisons was just to hold criminals and no regard was given for an inmate’s well-being.
Prior to the “five year plans”, Russia had mostly a peasant farming economy. The 1750 to 1914 period in Russia was met by a large increase in the available labor force. Coupled with an increase in population, Russia's emancipation of the serfs freed many of Russia's serfdom from perpetual slavery. However, the emancipation process was planned so as to put the freed serfs deeply in debt to the original owners of the land. In fact, many of the serfs were so deeply indebted that they relocated to Russia's cities in search of better work opportunities.
All in all the real money was in the southern slave labor farms, and northern wage labor farms felt threaten by this fact. Slavery mixed with farms and the types of crops produced is what really began the domino effect that lead into the civil war. Southern slave labor farms seemed to have an upper hand in the production of crop. The slave labor farms were able to produce more crops and sell it for a higher profit than free labor farms. Therefore, slave labor farms were able to bring in larger amounts of income which, in turn, led to a drastic change in there social structure when compared to free labor farms in the north.
Prison gangs are much better organized than the average street gang. When an inmate is released he is typically more savvy about keeping a low profile and so it becomes more difficult for authorities recognize criminal activity. Prison gangs have risen some four hundred percent during the last decade and are still climbing. Gangs inside the prison walls have become experts at communicating through coded messages. Prison gangs originated as a form of protection from predator inmates, but expanded to include contraband.
Examining Theory Evan Packard CJA/314 - Criminology 1 December, 2014 Jacqueline Waltman Examining Theory In the video called “Tent City, Arizona the discussion is about the prison and the day to day operations within its walls. Over the last few years there has been a lot of controversy surrounding the Sheriff, Joe Arpaio. Some people believe that the jail is too harsh a punishment and that the treatment of prisoners is inhumane. Others believe this is the type of treatment that all jails should take on in order to truly teach the possible consequences of breaking a law. During the initial stages of the video there are a couple things that immediately raise red flags in my mind.
The College of New Jersey | Assignment 3 | | With the variety of journal articles to choose from, “Psychiatric Disorders and Repeat incarcerations: The Revolving Prison Door” caught my interest. As an undergraduate Criminology student it was very interesting to read an article referring to how psychology (mental disorders) and the criminal justice system are compatible. The data was correlational because the journal attempts to determine how related psychiatric disorders and recidivism in correctional populations are. In the introduction the researchers defined their problem or question. The epidemic of psychiatric disorders in the U.S prison system is a national problem.
This large increase in the rate of incarceration is the biggest dertermining factor for the rise of private prisons in the US and because the United States has setup a system in which we are putting people in prison at a much faster rate than anywhere else in the world private prisons have become more and more acceptable. "In 1980 about half the people entering state prison were violent offenders; in 1995 less than a third had been convicted of a violent crime. The enormous increase in America's inmate population can be explained in large part by the sentences given to people who have committed nonviolent offenses. Crimes that in other countries would usually lead to community service, fines, or drug treatment—or would not be considered crimes at all—in the United States now lead to a prison term, by far the most expensive form of punishment." (Schlosser) The creation of the Rockefeller drug laws in New York state is what appears to be a major proponent in this
In 1787 the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisoners was founded by many prominent Philadelphians citizens, philanthropists, and religious reformers that believed that prisoners were treated harshly and inhumane. Led by Benjamin Franklin and Benjamin Rush, the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisoners fought for better standards for prisoners, such as food, clothing, housing, and harsh punishment dished out by prison officials. In 1790, when the fist prison was built in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, the Walnut Street Jail became formally known as the Pennsylvania System. The Walnut Street Jail became the prototype for jails and prisons all over the U.S. This was the first step towards Next, in 1816, the Auburn State prison opened for business.
STRUCTURE/DEVELOPMENT- How it is still standing? How has it developed over time? AREA- Positioned on a hill overlooking the city of Lancaster-Can see far away- oncoming attackers) and situated next to the River Lune. JOHN HOWARD- Prison reformer John Howard (1726–1790) visited Lancaster in 1776 and noted the conditions in the prison. His efforts to instigate reform led to prisoners in prisons throughout the country being separated by gender and category of their crime.
Alexander discusses the fact that the prison system in today’s society has created a racial caste that exists only in lower class society. She argues that it is much the same as during the Jim Crow era and even the era of slavery. Acedemics such as Foucault, Wakefield and Uggen, Bosworth, and Jeremy Travis agree in three main areas: that the War on Drugs creating an inequality throughout our system, that the prisons act as a suppressor to people’s rights, and the invisible punishments faced by those who are “felons” need to become a public policy instead of a private matter. Alexander’s book, although controversial to some, makes some compelling arguments about the role of the criminal justice system in racial suppression. Anyone who would want to understand our current system of imprisonment would find it benefitial and informative to read the