Mathematics has been considered a very important subject since ancient times. We find very elaborate proof of this in Vedas, which were compiled around 6000 BC. The concept of division, addition etc. was used even that time. Concepts of zero and infinite were there. We also find roots of algebra in Vedas. When Indian algebra reached Arab., they called it Algebra. Algebra was name of the Arabic book that described Indian concepts. This knowledge reached to Europe from there. And thus ancient Indian Beez Ganit is currently referred to as Algebra.
Just as branches of a peacock and jewel-stone of a snake are placed at the highest place of body (forehead), similarly position of Ganit is highest in all the branches of Vedah and Shastrashas said the following- What is the use of much speaking. Whatever object exists in this moving and nonmoving world, can not be understood without the base of Ganit(Mathematics).
This fact was well known to intellectuals of India that is why they gave special importance to the development of Mathematics, right from the beginning. When this knowledge was negligible in Arab and Europe, India had acquired great achievements.
People from Arab and other countries used to travel to India for commerce. While doing commerce, side by side, they also learnt easy to use calculation methods of India. Through them this knowledge reached to Europe. From time to time many inquisitive foreigners visited India and they delivered this matchless knowledge to their countries. This will not be exaggeration to say that till 12th century India was the World Guru in the area of Mathematics.
The auspicious beginning on Indian Mathematics is in Aadi Granth (ancient/eternal book) Rigved. The history of Indian Mathematics can be divided into 5 parts, as following.
1) Ancient Time (Before 500 BC)
a)Vedic Time (1000 BC-At least 6000 BC)
a)Later Vedic Time (1000 BC-500BC)
2) Pre Middle Time (500 BC- 400 AD)
3) Middle Time or Golden Age (400 AD - 1200 AD)...