While it can be hard to understand why someone would falsely confess to a crime, psychological research has provided some answers and DNA exonerations have proven that the problem is more widespread than many people think. In approximately 25% of the wrongful convictions overturned with DNA evidence, defendants made false confessions, admissions or statements to law enforcement officials. In some false confession cases, details of the crime are inadvertently communicated to a suspect by police during questioning. Later, when a suspect knows these details, the police take the knowledge as evidence of guilt. Often, threats or promises are made to the suspect off camera and then the camera is turned on for a false confession.
The concept of criminal investigation can be traced back thousands of years, to early times in china and other part of Asia, as well as the Middle East, where agents of government used a great many legal, as well as illegal approaches (most notably torture) as a means of identifying transgressor of public order. In England, the so-called “thief catchers” were frequently drawn from elements of the underworld. The rank and file of the recruits constituted a distinct breed, but two clear-cut differences in motivation set some apart from others. Hireling, with mercenary motives, would play both sides of the street; social climbers would in criminate their confederates in order to move into respectable society. Identify and explain the two major branches of forensic science.
Unlike those cowards, one individual manned up to his mistakes and spoke with 60 Minutes about his steroid use and that with others. “I don’t recommend steroids for everyone and I don’t recommend growth hormones for everyone,” Canseco tells Mike Wallace. “But for certain
STRAIN THEORY Crime can be defined as any action that is in violation of the law and for which punishment is imposed, however, literally defining crime is often difficult as the constant changing laws throughout time blur the line in what constitutes a criminal act and an offender. Criminologists through the ages have presented their definitions of crime, providing theories that analyze why crime is committed and, more importantly, how it may be prevented. One of the prominent theories in explaining crime is the strain theory, first developed in 1938 by Robert K. Merton who sought to explain the relationship between social structure and delinquent behavior (Bernard, Snipes & Gerould; 2010). Merton’s work on the strain theory was formulated in response to Emily Durkheim’s conception of “anomie” – that is, a breakdown of social norms or rules that contributes to the social malady of crime (LaCapra; 1972). Durkheim’s work in the 19th century argued about the effects of rapid social change on anomies, an experience he himself witnessed occur during the revolutionary period in France.
Evolution of Forensic Science and Criminology Misti Tull Everest Online CJE-1640-1m Evolution of Forensic Science and Criminology Sir Francis Galton has contributed many things on fingerprinting but the major one has been finding the method of classifying them for study. In 1892 he printed a book titled Finger Prints this book stated the statistics on the method of personal identification. (Page 8 ch 1) Mathieu Orfila is known as the father of toxicology, he is known of this because in 1814 he was the first person to print a book on the detection of poisons and their effects on animals. The book establishes forensic toxicology as a legitimate study. (Page 7 ch1) One contribution is the journal he has written is about the improved methods of scientific crime detection and this still reports today.
Within biological and environmental Psychology both fields share varied beliefs as to where criminological behaviour is derived. Is criminal behaviour inherited or is it down to effects of the environment? Biological psychology theorists (BPT) believe that the criminal is born that way whereas environmental psychology theorists (EPT) believe criminal behaviour is learned. There is a range of research studies that support both these arguments. Cesare Lombroso (CL) was a Psychiatrist that believed that criminals had common facial characteristics and that they were “born criminals” which he also referred to as “atavisms”.
However, less scientific evidence of this can be taken back to a much earlier period when psychosurgery was performed by Neolithic cultures by boring holes in a skull by a process called trepanning. These actions were most likely carried out to “liberate” demons and bad spirits which ancient doctors believed were responsible for madness and brain disease. Seen again in medieval times performed by quack doctors to cure brain damage or madness. Other studies to follow backed up the “Localization” theory in the form of brain tissue stimulation, brain damage case studies, or pure experimentation, which subsequently resulted in the mapping of the brain itself. On September 13th, 1848 a man named Phineas Gage was working as a foreman blasting rock to lay bed for a rail line.
Such evidence is given primary status in many, if not all, criminal trials today ranging from crimes of murder to mere vandalism. Yet, despite the ‘heavyweight’ support given to the idea that forensic evidence is irrefutable it is argued by some that forensic science evidence alone should not convict. Arguably the Twentieth Century saw the explosion of science, not only in the area of forensic evidence but generally. Methods and techniques deployed in the gathering of evidence for conviction or acquittal changed at a dramatic pace and as each and every scientific discovery was made an application in Forensic Science was close behind. The gathering of forensic evidence at a crime scene is now paramount.
Many people believe that crimes are committed because people have mental issues, however that is not the case. Based on the research done by criminologists there are numerous theories as to why crimes happen, such as, biological, sociological and psychological. (Michaelson, Peter, January 10, 2012) The idea that there is a biological connection with crime is fairly recent. This idea started getting more attention back in the 19th century. Before, that individuals were believed to have control over their moods and directional approaches.
Criminologists have long since tried to determine the causes of crime and though many theories have been implemented; no one theory can determine all crime. However, the theories determined do complement each other [ (Siegel & Worrall, 2012) ]. Who are these criminals committing these crimes and why do they commit crime? One theory is that crime is genetically inherited [ (Siegel, 2011) ]. If crime can be scientifically proven to say that crime can be, or is inherited, then what about the children who have criminals as parents?