History & Migration

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Historical migration of human populations begins with the movement of people out of Africa across Eurasia which took place about a million years ago. Homo sapiens have occupied all of Africa about 150,000 years ago, moved out of Africa 70,000 years ago, and had spread across Australia, Asia and Europe by 40,000 years BC. Migration to the Americas took place 20,000 to 15,000 years ago, and by 2,000 years ago, through which, most of the Pacific Islands were colonized. Later population movements began including the Neolithic Revolution, Indo-European expansion, and the Early Medieval Great Migrations including and the Turkic expansion. In some places, cultural transformation occurred with the migration of relatively small elite populations, for example from Brittonic to English culture between the 4th and 7th centuries CE in what had been Roman Britain. Early humans migrated due to many factors such as changing climate and landscape and inadequate food supply. The evidence indicates that the ancestors of the Austronesian peoples spread from the South Chinese mainland to Taiwan at some time around 8,000 years ago. Evidence from historical linguistics suggests that it is from this island that seafaring peoples migrated, perhaps in distinct waves separated by millennia, to the entire region encompassed by the Austronesian languages. It is believed that this migration began around 6,000 years ago.[3] Indo-Aryan migration from the Indus Valley to the plain of the River Ganga in Northern India is presumed to have taken place in the Middle to Late Bronze Age, contemporary to the Late Harappanphase in India (ca. 1700 to 1300 BC). From 180 BC, a series of invasions from Central Asia followed, including those led by the Indo-Greeks, Indo-Scythians, Indo-Parthians and Kushans in the north-western Indian subcontinent.[4][5][6] From about 750 BC, the Greeks began 250 years of

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