History and Trends in Counseling

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History and Trends In Counseling Student Liberty University Abstract The purpose of this paper is to enable the reader to understand a broad concept of counseling in America from 1913 to present. It is by no means an inclusive survey but is intended to give an overview of counseling. Subtle changes are seen as the counseling paradigm shifts from practitioners making decisions as to what they determine is in the clients best interest to clients becoming empowered to choose their own goals. It is written to show how counselors help those with mental health issues strive to achieve mental soundness without imposing their own values on the client. Mental health practitioners have many functions and serve clients in a vast array of roles. This paper will discuss the historical treatment of those with mental health issues and transition into current trends in counseling, which include: mental asylums, outpatient counseling, managed care, integrative approach and virtual therapy. A discussion regarding the important elements of counselor identity, function and ethics as well as biblical and personal insights are also included. Keywords: counselors, mental health practitioners, avoiding harm History and Trends In Counseling Essentially all mental health practitioners, regardless of their area of concentration, have the same paragon, which is to help their clients accomplish their mental health goals (Rudow, 2012, p. 44). From today’s perspective, the early use of electroconvulsive therapy (which led to memory loss, fractured bones and other serious side effects) is considered draconian but during their era, clinicians used the technique in an attempt to help their clients achieve mental soundness. Counseling has evolved from that standard of care to one of “avoiding harm and imposing values” (American Counseling Association 2005, p.4). Brief

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