History Essay

875 WordsMar 12, 20154 Pages
World History Notes Africa Reading Pages 197-208 * Congo River to the Cape of Good Hope, most of the peoples in this region lived in what are sometimes called stateless societies, characterized by autonomous villages organized by clans and ruled by a local chieftain or clan head * Villages in Africa began to consolidate and this formed states * Congo River Valley enabled people to have an agricultural surplus because of the fertile land and combination of copper and iron * Luba, a state in Africa, was founded in a rich fishing and agricultural area * Luba had a centralized government * Kongo was another agricultural state at the same time of Luba in Africa * Both had a thriving manufacturing sector and took an active part in the growing exchange of goods throughout the region and no record of them because no writing system * Both began to expand South, and their agricultural ways were passed on * Zimbabwe was a mixed economy that involved farming, cattle herding, and commercial pursuits began to develop * Strategically situated between substantial gold reserves to the west and a small river leading to the coast, Great Zimbabwe was well placed to benefit from the expansion of trade between the coast and the interior * Most of the royal wealth probably came from two sources: the ownership of cattle and the king’s ability to levy heavy taxes on the gold that passed through the kingdom en route to the coast * With the decline of Zimbabwe, the focus of economic power began to shift northward to the valley of the Zambezi River * As Bantu- speaking farmers spread southward during the final centuries of the first millennium B. C. E., they began to encounter Stone Age peoples in the area who still lived primarily by hunting and foraging * The Khoi were herders, whereas the San were hunter- gatherers who lived in small

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