History Essay

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Cachet M. Hollis African American History 130B Section 64 Thursday, October 1, 2009 African American Chapter Summaries Chapter 1 Summary: Ancient Africa From their first arrival to the Americas, Africans knew that without history they would not have knowledge about there roots and they came from. For many generations African Americans nurtured the collective memory of their history through oral story telling. There were a few opportunities to publish written accounts. The first were by enslaved Africans such as Phillis Wheatley, and Venture Smith. The first Human Beginnings were said to come from East Africa. The common scientific understanding is that all human beings descended from hominids. They were said to have enlarged brains and could walk upright on two legs. Most Scientists agree that Africa is the mother of all humans. The rise of Egyptian civilization started when Africans learned to use the predictable flooding of the mighty Nile to irrigate crops. Egypt was a land of little rainfall. Hydraulic engineers transformed Egypt from a sparsely populated and forbidding desert into a thriving civilization. To record information they wrote hieroglyphics. There was an up rise of West African Kingdoms such as Ghana, Mali, and Songhai after the spread of Islam. After those kingdoms emerged central Africa kingdoms emerged. Chapter Two Summary: Africa and the Atlantic World The Portuguese started to send infrequent raiding parties to the African Coast in search of a few slaves to work the fields on island colonies. They then forged trading agreements with Ghana. Initially they supplied slaves to Europe. Europe’s demand for slaves became dry, leaving them with little reason to keep the slave trade going. It all shifted when the Portuguese began to cultivate sugar on the Madeira’s. That’s when the plantation system

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