History - 1950s Essay

440 WordsMay 5, 20142 Pages
The 1950s (Social, cultural changes, international relations, US, USSR) Cold War • Started in 1948, to the 80s • After WW2, Soviets broke an agreement with the allies (tried to cut trade) • United States & democratic allies (Western Europe) • Soviet Union & communist allies (Eastern Europe) • Built up armed forces and spent large amounts of money on military equip. and nuclear weapons • Both sides engaged in espionage to uncover the enemy’s military secrets and gov’t plans • Determined to prove superiority • IRON CURTAIN→boundary between East/West Europe, name thought of by Winston Churchill NATO (North American Treaty Organization) • A defense pact intended to protect the members against further soviet aggression. All members would support, and protect each other. The organization was composed only of west Democratic Countries. • By providing a united front against an enemy attack, it was reasoned that acts of aggression against any member nation would be discouraged. Warsaw Pact (1955) • Since the establishment of the NATO, the U.S.S.R was fearful that they would attack. So they created a the Warsaw Pact which was basically an alliance Russia made with its East communist Allies behind the Iron Curtain for the same reasons the NATO was created. • The 2 opposing camps were driven by different beliefs and values. And so the leading rival powers, the U.S and the U.S.S.R, quickly focused on military superiority. The Arms Race. Igor Gouzenko • Trained in Soviet Intelligence work, he was assigned to the Soviet Embassy in Ottawa 1943. He learned that the Soviet Intelligence operated spy networks in Canada to steal secrets about the atomic bomb. • His family was demanded to return back to Russia but Igor did not want to go back, so he offered to tell the Canadian government about the Soviet spies in return for permanent protection and a home in Canada.

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