Hi Essay

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Five causes of the Arab Uprising What has caused the winds of liberty which, from Morocco to Bahrain, passing through Libya and Egypt, are now blowing through the Arab world? For what reasons are these simultaneous movements for democracy being expressed at this particular moment? For these two questions, the answers are diverse: historical, political, economic, environmental and social. 1. Historical. Since the end of the First World War and the implosion of the Ottoman Empire, the interest of western powers in the Arab World (the Near East and North Africa) has had two main incentives: to control oil and to guarantee a Jewish nation. After the Second World War and the universal trauma of the Holocaust, the creation of the State of Israel in 1948 had as a counterpart a rise to power, in various Arab states liberated from colonialism, anti-Zionist forces (opposed to the existence of Israel) in the style of “nationalist military” in Egypt and Yemen, or of the “socialist Arab” character in Iraq, Syria, Libya and Algeria. Three lost wars against Israel (in 1956, 1967 and 1973) led to Egypt and Jordan signing peace treaties with the Jewish state, and aligning with the United states which already controlled – under the Cold War – all the petro-monarchies on the Arabic peninsula like Libya, Tunisia and Morocco. In this way, Washington and its western allies maintained their two major priorities: the control of petrol and the security of Israel. At the same time, they protected the permanence of ferocious tyrannies (Hassan II, General Mubarak, General Ben Ali, the Saudi Kings Faisal, Fahd and Abdullah, etc) and sacrificed any democratic aspirations of those societies. 2. Political. In the states of alleged “Arab Socialism” (Iraq, Syria, Libya and Algeria), under the convenient pretext of an “anti-imperialist struggle” and the “communist hunt”, single-party

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