Hhhhh Essay

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The Mothership: PERSIA review of the Ages of European History The Renaissance approx. 1300 – 1525 POLITICAL  City States: No national government o Florence, Genoa, Venice  Some were rule by despots (Milan)  Others were controlled by condottieri, or military men who were independent war lords  Florence was a republic  In the later years of the Renaissance, these states warred with each other and left them prone to outside attack. o This happened when Charles V’s troops attacked in 1527, thereby ending the Renaissance in Italy.  The Hapsburgs (Holy Roman Empire) face many enemies during this time. o They fight with the Valois dynasty in France, and must contend with the Muslims. o In 1453, the Muslims finally captured Constantinople. ECONOMIC  The Medici were the merchant banker family based in Florence.  The Medici family, and their northern counterparts, the Fugger, loaned money to various kings in other parts of Europe.  The basic institutions of Europe, banking, law, government and economic production were established in the Middle Ages.  However, much was refined during the Renaissance.  Florence’s golden florin becomes standard European currency.  Florentine merchants traded and loaned money.  Venice and Genoa were the major merchant cities.  Merchant capitalism began to weaken the power of the nobility.  Merchant families begin to climb the social ladder.  Two Medici women eventually married and became queens of France.  The Northern Renaissance was more technically inventive o Printing (1450), mining, mathematics, cartography (maps), lenses, telescopes. RELIGIOUS  Religion and the Northern Renaissance o Mysticism: The belief that the individual could commune with God – not openly rebellious against Catholicism, but the roots of the Reformation can be found in northern Mysticism. o Christian humanists

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