The pharmaceutical industry is reflective of this environment. Under these circumstances, managers should concentrate on removing sources of dissatisfaction from the workplace in order to keep employees busy, productive, and satisfied. At the same time, employees need to take responsibility for their own satisfaction in their job. 2 A theory of job satisfaction Herzberg developed one of the earliest theories relating to job satisfaction in the 1950s. His "two-factor" theory emphasizes that there are factors in the workplace that create satisfaction (motivators) and those which lead to dissatisfaction if they are not present (hygiene factors).
One reason for this is the effect of traditional hiring and evaluation processes, in which the emphasis is still on individual performance and rewards. An essential question must then be asked: What happens to employees who, despite the organization's best efforts at training, still do not seem to be functioning as part of the team? HELPING DYSFUNCTIONAL TEAM MEMBERS What can organizations and teams do when they find themselves with employees who cannot contribute to, or work effectively, as part of a selfmanaged team? First, those who assisted the team during its formation can, as outsiders, usually identify employees whose behavior does not meet the norms expected and needed by the group for high functioning. If the outside facilitator and the other team members cannot resolve the problem after a reasonable amount of time, they need to seek assistance from the team manager and address the
It enhances employee responsiveness and commitment to work since they know that they will be held accountable for their job failure or success. While employee autonomy is seen to benefit employees and employers, the resulting effect could be counter-productive depending on the amount of autonomy. Too much of everything is bad, and I believe that it is common practice for people to misuse opportunities when there is no control. Employee autonomy can become a problem in instances where an employee feels that he/she is beyond control. Employee autonomy can decrease job efficiency due to lack of supervision coupled with the fact that employees are working at their pace.
The Pygmalion effect enables staff to surpass in response to the manager’s message that they are capable of success and expected to succeed. But it can also undermine staff performance when the unrecognized communication from the managers tells them the opposite. In another way every managers have some expectations of the people who report to him or her and they consciously or unconsciously communicate these expectations to their subordinates. On the other hand people get it, or consciously or unconsciously read, these expectations from their managers or supervisors and people perform in the ways that are consistent with the expectations they have picked up on from the managers. Summary The book is divided into four big parts.
Within the psychological makeup of man is the formation of attitude. These to a great extent determine the productivity of worker. That is pending on the attitude so developed towards work whether positive or negative as the case may be. Attitude is a very important psychological characteristic which we acquire through socialization. It is a set of very strong operations and feelings that we think of as principles that guide out conduct.
For example, the over-working of employees with minimal added benefits and pay would lead to unproductive, tired employees which would then lead to lesser output and unhappy employees. There is not one of the two concepts that is more important than the other, rather, there needs to be a balance of both for a more productive organization. The employees and leaders of an establishment needs to focus on achieving the end goal in the shortest amount of time possible with greater output and lesser resources. Managers can improve both simultaneously. In order to improve effectiveness, performance reviews for their subordinates must be made so that those who work for them are able to know of their weak points and be able to improve them.
Although non-financial rewards were rated higher, the survey results concluded that both financial and non-financial reward elements impact employee motivation levels, which are ultimately linked to higher levels of satisfaction and performance. Impact of Financial and Non-financial Rewards on Employee Motivation There is ongoing discussion in business literature regarding the development of managerial skills and the characteristics of effective and capable managers. In a period of economic downturn, fostering a motivating work environment and understanding the elements of an effective motivation program are critical pieces of human resources management. Employees lacking motivation present a
They are related to the environment the employee is working in rather than the work itself. Important hygiene factors consist of organizational policies, quality of supervision, working conditions, relationships with peers and subordinates, status, job security, and salary. Adequate levels of all of these factors could prevent employee dissatisfaction. Motivational factors include achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth, the work itself, and the opportunity for advancement which increases the job satisfaction. Maslow suggested a sequenced pattern of needs and satisfaction that people follow to reach the next upper need in the hierarchy after satisfying lower needs.
However, the kind of motivation employees get determines their output level. Thus, a high level of satisfaction could lead to high output whilst high level of dissatisfaction with the job could lead to low output. However, the opposite of job satisfaction is not dissatisfaction, but rather a simple lack of satisfaction. In the same way, the opposite of job dissatisfaction is not satisfaction, but rather “no dissatisfaction” (Herzberg, Mausner, & Snyderman, The Motivation to Work, 1959). Now, it would interest managers to know the level of employee’s satisfaction and the factor(s) causing such satisfaction/ dissatisfaction.
One of the reasons why practitioners undervalue pay as an important motivator, as cited in the article, is because data that are presented to them show so. Results of what employees respond to certain survey questions would probably present the perception of employees. But, the idea of socially desirable responding plays an important role on how and what the employees’ responses are. In the surveys conducted regarding motivators for employees, results show that pay or incentives are far less important than other motivating factors. Nunnally and Bernstein (as cited in Rynes, Gerhart, and Minette, 2004) defines socially desirable responding as the tendency to choose items that reflect societally approved behaviors.