ADP and Pi then recombine and cause the protein to revert back to its original shape. This process means that molecules can move against a concentration gradient so more glucose and other substances can be fully absorbed. Active transport is also used in neurone cells to maintain a resting potential where the outside of the cell is positively charged compared to the inside. The sodium Potassium pump moves 3 sodium ions out of the neurone for every 2 potassium ions moved in. This is against the concentration gradient so requires ATP to move them via active transport.
There are two types of respiration: Aerobic (using oxygen) and Anaerobic (no oxygen). Aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water and releases energy. The equation is: C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy ATP A cell cannot get its energy directly from glucose, so during respiration the energy released from the breakdown of glucose is used to make ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is made from the nucleotide base adenine, combined with a ribose sugar and three phosphate groups. It carries energy around the cell to where it’s needed.
When a photon of light hits a chlorophyll molecule, the chlorophyll is excited, and one of its electrons is promoted to a higher energy state. This electron, however, would eventually come back down to its original ‘ground state’, and in doing so, releases a small amount of energy. This energy is used to drive the endothermic reaction which combines ADP (adenosine diphosphate) to an inorganic phosphate group in order to produce a molecule of ATP. However, in virtually all other organisms, ATP is produced by respiration. Respiration could be put simply as the transfer of energy stored in larger organic molecules such as glucose into the ATP form.
For this lab we want to observe how the chloro substituent has an effect on the reactivity of the possible hydrogen atoms. Experimental Results The following results on the table below was not from our own experiment but was obtained through a previous lab report that was posted in aumoodle.andrews.edu for our use by Dr. Ahlberg. Products | Relative % amounts of product | Relative Reactivity= (Relative % amount/number of hydrogen on the atom with the chloro substituent) | 1,1-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 5.97% | 2.98 | 1,2-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 23.98% | 11.99 | 1,3-dichlorobutane (major product) | 47.74% | 23.87 | 1,4-dichlorobutane (minor product) | 22.28% | 7.42 | Discussion: Based on the results of our table we can see that the relative reactivity of hydrogen atoms is influenced by several factors including the chloro substituent. One factor that determines the reactivity of the hydrogen atoms is based on how highly the carbon is substituted. For free radical formation, the more highly substituted the carbon atom is (methyl > primary > secondary >tertiary), the less energy it will require (Wade 2010).
Respiration is a series of biochemical pathways that take place in order to create the ATP needed for an organism to survive. ATP is created by either oxidation or reduction reactions depending on what type of respiration process is taking place. An oxidation reaction is when the biochemical pathway has to lose electrons, while in reduction reactions gain electrons to create ATP (Notes, 9/30/15). Aerobic respiration is a biochemical pathways that creates ATP through a series of oxidation reactions. In this type of process, the electron acceptor that would be used is NAD+ and the final electron acceptor has to be oxygen.
These proteins are highly specific regarding what they do and under what conditions they do it in. Like a lock and key, the enzyme and substrate must fit correctly in order for the enzyme to work properly. The reaction we are investigating is the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide catalysed by the enzyme catalase. Five trials will be run at pH levels 4,7 and 10 From prior knowledge, I know that pH is a measure of the concentrations of hydrogen ions in a solution. The higher the hydrogen ion concentration, the lower the pH.
Enzymes are proteins that are used to speed up these reactions without being consumed by them. The activity of these enzymes can be altered by changing their environments, such as enzyme specificity (speed only a reaction that contains their substrate), increasing and decreasing temperature, concentration level, or adjusting the pH level. Catalase is a catalyst that digests potent hydrogen peroxide and converts it into H2O and O. It is due to this hydrogen peroxide digesting ability that we used catalase in this experiment. To record the role that environment plays in the reaction of an enzyme, we exposed the enzyme to various changes in temperature, concentration, and pH.
Respiration is a process through which energy is released from glucose or another organic chemicals. As such, it is significant for the survival of all living organisms, whether animals or plants or microscopic bacteria. It serves two fundamental purposes in living organisms: first is the removal of the electrons generated during catabolism and second, is generation of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Respiration occurs in two different ways, namely, aerobic and anaerobic. Aerobic respiration is oxygen-based cellular respiration that uses oxygen to generate energies through the breakdown of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
(10 points) The catabolic cycle called glycolysis is the most universal energy-producing metabolic pathway for organisms that live on or near the earth’s surface. a) Stage I glycolysis actually consumes ATP. In which steps is ATP converted to ADP and how is the phosphate group used? b) Stage II glycolysis produces some ATP directly and also reduced NADH. How are these electron carriers reoxidized in anaerobic bacteria?
Various enzymes have unique shape and chemical composition that creates a site, called and active site. This is to allow connection between the enzyme and other molecules called substrates. The shape and chemical makeup of the active site provides an area for part of the substrate to connect with the enzyme. (Farabee, 2010) Part of the active site holds the substrate and part catalyzes the reaction. Some enzymes act on one substrate only, while other enzymes act on a family of related molecules.