The cystic artery’s function is to supply passage of oxygenated blood to the gallbladder neck and the common bile duct. 16. What is the function of the portal vein? The portal vein carries blood that contains digested food from the small intestine to the liver. 17.
Plasma Lipoproteins Metabolism Lipoproteins are complexes of lipids and specialized proteins known as apolipoproteins. Lipoprotein metabolism is divided into two ways, exogenous and endogenous, depending on whether the lipoproteins are made up, mainly of dietary (exogenous) lipids or if they originate from the liver(endogenous). Abnormalities in the metabolism or synthesis of lipoproteins can lead to accelerated atherosclerosis and hyperglycemia. (David A. Chappell et al 21). In the exogenous path the Epithelial, cell lining also known as the small intestines, readily takes in lipids from the food.
Samuel Lee Medical Terminology Secition 05 Susan Elizabeth RESEARCH PAPER ON THE URINARY SYSTEM The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder and urethra. The paired kidneys are located retroperitoneally against the posterior body wall. They receive blood from the renal arteries, filter the blood and return it to the general circulation through the renal veins. Each kidney is surrounded by a tough fibrous capsule. Within the capsule, the kidney is divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla.
QUESTION: Trace the route of the contrast medium from its site of injection to the urinary bladder for an intravenous urography examination. NAME OF CONTRAST MEDIUM: Uroselectan (42%) TYPE: An iodinated, ionic contrast media AMOUNT INJECTED: 0.2gram per kilogram of body weight SITE OF INJECTION: 1) Right Median Cubital Vein The site of injection for an intravenous urography (IVU) examination could be the right or left cubial vein. For this study, the right median cubital vein will be utilized. This vein is located to the anterior aspect of the right elbow and connects the right basilic and cephalic veins, which run along the medial and lateral aspects of the right forearm respectively. Once access to the right median cubital vein has been gained, a bolus injection of the contrast media, Uroselectan (42%), is administered.
Small molecules such as oxygen and carbon dioxide can diffuse in and out of the cells through the phospholipid bilayer; ions and glucose molecules enter and leave the cell via the channel proteins. Waste products such as nitrogenous compounds are carried to the kidneys and are excreted in the form of urine. Antidiuretic hormone, (ADH), is a hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. It is carried by the plasma to the kidney and stimulate the occurrence of water reabsorption. When the body is dehydrated, ADH is released, causing the collecting ducts to become more permeable.
3/24/2014 Structure of the Kidney: Basic Diagram of the Kidney of the human body Renal hilus: The renal hilus is an indentation near to the centre of the concave area of the kidney. This is the area of the kidney through which the ureter leaves the kidney and the other structures including blood vessels (illustrated), lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter/leave the kidney. Renal capsule: The renal capsule is a smooth, transparent, fibrous membrane that surrounds, encloses, and protects the kidney. Each kidney has it's own renal capsule (outer layer), which helps to maintain the shape of the kidney as well as protecting it from damage. The renal capsule is itself surrounded by a mass of fatty tissue that also helps to protect the kidney by damage by cushioning it in cases of impact or sudden movement.
Water filters from the blood through the kidneys. Urine is also formed through the kidneys (helps remove wastes). When blood enters the kidney from the renal artery, it moves into the glomerulus, where filtration occurs. This is where water and dissolved particles are pulled out of the blood, resulting in a filtrate, which is then collected by the Bowman’s capsule. The nephron itself will then restore the vital nutrients and water back into the blood, while retaining the waste products the needs to eliminate, through the proximal and distal tubules.
At the introduction to the duodenum, alpha amylase is secreted by the pancreas and further breaks down the carbohydrates into primary simple sugars. Then they are transported and absorbed by the small intestine via the villi on the epithelial lining of the lumen of the small intestine. The epithelium absorbs these simple saccharides (such as dextrin and maltose). These sugars, in their simplest forms (as glucose, fructose, or galactose), will enter the capillaries where they enter the blood stream via different transporters such as the GLUT transporter (a facilitative sugar transporter)(7). Fructose and galactose will enter the liver via the hepatic portal system where they are broken down to glucose.
So a drug requires a number of partitioning and diffusion step. In this route drug passes through cytoplasm of cells. This route is suitable for hydrophilic drugs and highly hydrated keratin gives aqueous pathway to the hydrophilic drugs. The drug passes through the corneocytes of stratum corneum. iii) Intercellular route :- Intercellular pathway the drug diffuses through the continuous lipid matrix present between the cells.