PROTEIN FUNCTION MYOGLOBIN AND HEMOGLOBIN Model of how oxygen is carried by hemoglobin The major differences in oxygenated and deoxygenated states of hemoglobin Oxygenated: Heme is planar conﬁgured, in a R (relaxed) state. Bound to oxygen gives a bright red color. Deoxygenated: Heme is dome conﬁgured, in a T (tense) state. Color is not bright. Hudon-Miller, S. (2012).
C) They all contain one or more double bonds. D) They are a constituent of sterols. E) They are strongly hydrophilic. 2. Storage Lipids Pages: 346-358 Difficulty: 2 Ans: E Which of the following molecules or substances contain, or are derived from, fatty acids?
Dipole-dipole forces are permanent dipoles due to different electronegativity. Hydrogen bonding is a strong dipole that forms when H bonds to N, O, or F.  Nitric acid (HNO3) is a colorless, toxic, oxidizing, and corrosive liquid commonly used as laboratory reagent and for the manufacture of fertilizers and explosives.  It is completely miscible and has a dipole moment of 2.17D. It contains one hydrogen bond and is a polar molecule. Water (H2O) is colorless liquid that’s the basis of life on Earth.
Protein channels allow molecules that are too big to pass through the carrier proteins to enter in and out the cell via a tube shaped molecule via diffusion which requires a concentration gradient but then sometimes the molecules are too big to go through and therefore undergo facilitated diffusion, however carrier proteins only allow certain molecules with a complementary shape to the binding site of the carrier protein to enter using ATP as the main sources of energy. Substrate (molecule to move across the
45 2 points Question 4 The protein in blood that regulates osmotic pressure and pH is albumin True False 2 points Question 5 All of the following are PLASMA blood proteins EXCEPT 1. albumin 2. hemoglobin 3. fibrinogen 4. globulin 2 points Question 6 Which element in hemoglobin binds oxygen 1. calcium 2. zinc 3. iron 4. iodine 2 points Question 7 How many red blood cells in blood and how many white blood cells? 1. 4-6 million / 10-200 2. 1-2 million / 100-10,000 3. 4-6 million / 4,800 -10,800 4.
A value of A(1% 1cm) was obtained. INTRODUCTION Cytochromes are proteins with an iron-containing group (heme) capable of existing alternatively in a reduced form (Fe2+) and an oxidised form (Fe3+) form and are specifically involved in electron transport in mitochondria. (Tortora & Grabwoski, 2000). Several cytochromes are involved in the electron transport chain and includes cytochrome a (cyt a), cytochrome a3 (cyt a3) cytochrome b (cyt b), cytochrome c1 (cyt c1) and cytochrome c,(cyt c). The electron carrier cytochrome c resides in the intermembrane space between the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes and helps the electron transport chain to convert energy as NADH to energy as the hydrogen ion electrochemical gradient across the mitochondrial inner membrane.
NH3 and CH3COOH Note: Conjugate acid-base pairs differ by one proton and a charge of 1 Amphoteric/Amphiprotic -a substance capable of reacting as an acid or a base -water in the above examples is amphoteric -another example is HCO3-1 which is part of the buffer system in our blood Polyprotic Acids -acids that have more than one ionisable hydrogen e.g. H2SO4 is an example of a diprotic acid Strong and Weak Acids and Bases -strong acids and bases complete react with water to release all of their hydrogen or hydroxide ions -weak acids and bases only partially ionize/dissociate and thus form equilibrium systems and have equilibrium constants associated with them -since
It is a weak bond, but is decisive in controlling the structure of both water and ice. In a water molecule, two hydrogen atom are bonded to an oxygen atom share a pair of electrons between them by a covalent bond. In H2O, only two of the six outer-shell electrons of oxygen are used for this purpose, leaving four electrons which are organized into two non-bonding pairs. Salts are ionic compounds that result from the neutralisation reaction of an acid and an alkali. They are composed of an equal number of cations and anions so that the product is electrically neutral.
In redox reaction, one element or compound is reduced and gains electrons, while on the other hand, the other element or compound is oxidized and loses electrons. For this lab, through the given oxidation and reduction numbers from balancing the equation and the electrons, it was shown that Manganese was reduced while Iron was oxidized. Also from the equation, the movement of electrons can be noticed, as it was added or subtracted from the substances. In order to balance an equation, there must be same number of elements on both sides, with the exception of hydrogen and oxygen. From there, in order to balance oxygen, water molecules are enumerated to the opposite of the equation/reaction.
* Destaturation: giving unsaturated fatty acids. * Typical fatty acid= 18 carbons long= Stearic acid is a typical long chain saturated fatty acid * 1 double bond: monosaturated fatty acid. Eg. Oleic acid is a typical monosaturated fatty acid * Fatty acids are typically stored in their saturated form and unsaturated forms found in the membrane. Fatty acids play four major roles in bodily processes roles: