……Ethnicity and health………… Identify 4 trends in health inequality in relation to this topic. ● Diabetes among south Asian backgrounds. ●People from the Indian subcontinent experience higher mortality from heart disease. ●Asian children appear to be more susceptible to rickets than children from other backgrounds. ●Sickle cell anaemia is found in African-Caribbean populations more than in other groups.
There are two main types of discrimination; direct discrimination and indirect discrimination, direct discrimination is where overt individuals openly discriminate against others and this can be done either words or actions where the person is going out of their to disadvantage another person or group of people. An example of this in a health care setting would be a nurse/ doctor denying treatment to a coloured person but accepting to treat a white person (this is also an example of racism). Indirect discrimination is more covert, this is where certain conditions, rules or regulations are put in place that has a preference to one group of people than another. A person’s culture is important to them and signifies who they are and it developed within their social group that they were raised in. It is important in a health and social care profession to respect a person’s culture in order to show that the individual is being supported and that we are giving them a sense of understanding.
Nature and Extent of health inequities- Socio-economically Disadvantaged People The socioeconomic determinants include income, education and employment. People or groups, who are considered as socio-economically disadvantaged are characterised by the following: * Poor levels of education * Low income * Poor housing * Unskilled work * Long periods of unemployment People from a lower socio-economic background have significantly lower levels of health than higher socio-economic groups. Lower socio-economic groups have higher mortality and higher levels of illness. Many studies show that people or groups who are socially and economically disadvantaged have reduced life expectancy, premature mortality, increased disease incidence and prevalence, increased biological and behavioural risk factors for ill health, and lower overall health status. The link between socio-economic status (SES) and health begins at birth and continues through life, but the strength of the relationship varies at different life stages.
In a study done on newborn care practices in underprivileged and countryside areas of Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan, all reports pointed to religious and cultural barriers to looking for care in addition to inadequate public information about the importance of health care and acknowledgment of maternal and newborn danger signs (Syed, Nhadka, & Wall, 2008) . Regular doctor visits, particularly during the postnatal period, were generally low. When families did seek health care, they favored medication from customary healers more willingly than skilled health workers for the reason that of cultural and religious beliefs. In Bangladesh, husbands and mothers-in-law were usually the decision makers about antenatal care (ANC). Women found the idea of antenatal care to be shameful, especially if the examination were done by male health workers.
However, something as simple as language has an enormous effect in health disparities and has led to catastrophes. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, some 49.6 million Americans (18.7 percent of U.S. residents) speak a language other than English at home; 22.3 million (8.4 percent) have limited English proficiency, speaking English less than "very well," according to self-ratings. Between 1990 and 2000, the number of Americans who spoke a language other than English at home grew by
Mental health care availability among children and adolescents with mental illnesses cost more to get treated than the children and adolescents that don’t. Children and adolescents with mental illnesses in rural areas have less health care treatment due to the lack of mental health care providers and services than children and adolescents in urban areas. The lack of access to health and mental care services affect not only the individuals, but also the society. According to the website Healthy People.gov, managed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, health care availability and services has four components; coverage, services, timeliness, and workforce. The first component, which is coverage, assist and help patients get into the health care system.
Research suggests that refugees that enter Australia have an increased rate of chronic psychological and medical conditions than other migrants. They often report a poorer state of well being and readily attend health care clinics (Western Melbourne Division
The reasons for these inequalities are linked with socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender and the geographical area in which people live. There is also statistical evidence which highlights the fact that Maori, Pacific Islanders and people from lower socioeconomic backgrounds are dying at a younger age and generally have poorer health than other New Zealanders (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2002). The Reducing Inequalities in Health report (MOH, 2002) states that the primary causes of health inequality in New Zealand are directly related to the distribution of and access to resources such as income, education, employment and housing. The report also states that another major influence on this inequality in health is the difference in how and when people access health care services and how that care may differ between those receiving the services. This is also said to have a significant impact both on peoples’ health status and mortality rates.
(Social class and stratification 1990 p2-3) There have been a number of studies on social inequalities that have examined differences in health status to rank. For example the Whitehall study (1988 cited in Marmot et al., 1991) examines differences in health across groups of individuals ranked by civil service grade. The findings of this study concluded that generally those who are less well off have shorter lives and experience more illness than those who are wealthier (UCL, 2004) [Accessed 18th November 2009] Belonging to a social class is not merely an objective fact, but is generally accompanied by a perception of class identity. In this sense, social class is not merely a personal attribute, but also a contextual variable that characterizes a group of people. The shared culture of a
Infant mortality rate is the death rate during the first year of life. Birth and death rate affect the population of a country. If a country has a low death rate, this suggests that it has high life expectancy. There are many factors that affect the birth and death rate of a country, these factors varying from political to religious reasons. They all contribute to the total population.