Further it contends that individual rights cannot remain intact without a communitarian perspective; that human dignity and the social dimension are recognized equally. How is this possible? Can a system exist in which an individual and society as a whole maintain a mutually acceptable symbiotic existence without infringing on opposing responsibilities? A democratic perspective by its very nature relies on a individuals view on how best to run his given society. A communitarian perspective insist that all members of a community act and react as one, each drawing the same conclusions as the next, and collectively moving towards a mutual goal.
Aquinas considered that by using our reason to reflect on our human nature we could discover our specific end purpose. Aquinas used the ideas of Aristotle and the Stoics as an underpinning for Natural Law saying- human beings have an essential rational nature given by God in order for us to live and flourish. Aristotle said even without knowledge of god, reason can discover the laws that lead to human flourishing. The Stoics said Natural Laws are universal and unchangeable and should be used to judge of particular societies. We use this is help us choose the right moral action is situations.
I Definition This section will provide definitions of ethical theories, such as Deontology, Egoism, Utilitarianism, and Virtue Theory. Deontology (Kantianism) theory stipulates that people must decide for themselves what is rational. Personal desires outside of one’s principles are thought of as outside forces with the potential to thwart rationality. One who acts as a Kantian must be completely unwavering of these principles. Egoism is the ethical theory that people are largely consumed with their own self-interests, and all acts are pursued primarily out of self-interest and personal desires.
Kant devised two different types of imperatives which allow us to make our decisions, hypothetical imperatives are the rules that we follow to attain a personal outcome or a selfish wish whereas categorical imperatives are intrinsically right. His first categorical imperative was meant to establish that humans should only act according to a law that can be universalised. ‘’Act only according to that maxim whereby you can, at the same time, will that it should become a universal law’’ – (Kant the moral order). The second of the imperatives is that we as humans should never use another human as a means to an end, treat them all with value. ‘’Act in such a way that you treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, always at the same time as an end and never merely as a means to an end’’.
To prevent repetitive “state of war”, Locke claims the “social contract”. This is when human being is giving to government their consented natural right to protect themselves. Thus societies constitute the government and the government are protecting people with
Amongst family, community, religion, academia, business, media, and government are all equal but, when one gains predominance tyranny always emerges. Family ensures responsible citizens, preserve society, and balance desires of individual liberty. Therefore, preventing the centralization of power by keeping responsibility and decision-making close to the people in the community. Religion serves as a venue for citizens and their duties to and reliance on God. Along with academia advances culture through knowledge, helps to prevent sociology economic inequalities as it breaks through boundaries of human ignorance and fear.
They also believe that a person's subjective view of the world is more important than objective reality. The humanistic perspective on personality deals exclusively with human behavior. Humanistic psychologists believe that human nature includes a natural drive towards personal growth, that we as humans have the ability to choose what they do regardless of environment, and that humans are pretty much conscious beings that are not controlled by unconscious needs and conflicts. Two major theorists associated with this theory of personal development that impacted humanism are Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow. Humanism places an emphasis on the assumption that all humans are inherently good in nature and possess free will.
A term he coined to describe phenomena that have an existence in and of themselves, are not bound to the actions of individuals, but have a coercive influence upon them. Durkheim stated that “collective conscience governs what it is that we believe and the values and principles we have”. Collective conscience comes about because of our capacity to be moral, (ability to do what is right) and to look beyond our own selfish needs. As a group of people, we had recognized that we depend on society and that we need to maintain social order. This recognition promotes unity and consensus; it is done through institutions, such as religion and the education system.
A moral relativist would believe that there is no definite set of rules that apply universally. Instead they believe that all decisions should be made upon circumstances at the time and more importantly why the action was made. This is called cultural relativism. The theory of relativist morality was first established by Protagoras who asked questions such as, “what is good for you?” He did not believe that our knowledge was all fixed or that it extended depending on our experiences, as Plato did being a moral absolutist. He stated, “Man is the measure of all things”.
Deontology is the study of duty. “The theory of deontology states that we are morally obliged to act in accordance with a certain set of principles/rules regardless of the outcome.” On Kant's view, the sole feature that gives an action moral worth is not the outcome that is achieved by the action, but the motive that is behind the action. (Plato). Kant’s ethical theories revolve around personal duty to make one’s actions produce a moral value and respect for other people. In the business and stakeholders context, Kant’s principle of respect for persons asserts that every human being is entitled to be treated not merely as a means to the achievement of the efforts of others, but as a being valuable in his or her own right; that each person is entitled to be respected as an end in himself or herself.