For example it would be almost impossible to control the variables that may influence a situation and although being able to control the environment/variables may seem like a good thing all its creating is an artificial environment. This is the reason why field experiments are better favored by an interpritivist as an experimental method. There are also many ethical issues regarding the conduction of experiments on human beings as informed consent is necessary from the participants and it is difficult or impossible to get consent of somebody who has learning difficulties or is a baby. Many sociologists choose not
Obtaining informed consent from participants who are children or have learning difficulties may be difficult. Lying to participants about the nature of the experiment, as Milgram (1974) did in his studies of obedience to authority, is considered morally wrong. Therein lies another issue, as if people know they are being studied/know the nature of the experiment, the Hawthorne effect may occur, where the participants behaviour is unnatural. This would not produce valid results, therefor ruining the experiment. However, the laboratory experiment is highly reliable, as it is easily repeatable and a detached method.
However our environment is dynamic and shaped by our own interactions with others. It is likely that the social environment for pairs of MZ twins is more similar than it is for DZ twins. Similarly it is unsurprising that phobia ‘runs’ in families, clearly families provide the ideal environment for ‘vicarious’ learning.Explaning these patterns with reference to genetic and other biological factors is arguably unnecessary. One weakness of the genetic argument is that the participants in the
“The Perils of Obedience” Obedience is defined as dutiful or submissive behavior with respect to another person or group of people. It is usually referred to as a positive aspect, but in the case of “The Perils of Obedience” by Stanley Milgram, in which obedience to authority causes other people harm, it can easily be argued as an extremely negative factor. In defense of her personal opinion about Milgram’s experiment, Diana Baumrind wrote “Review of Stanley Milgram’s Experiments on Obedience” to demonstrate that obedience is not always the right action to partake in. Although the sources have extremely different views of obedience, they both have several of the same subtopics, including validity, sympathy, and conformity. In “The Perils of Obedience”, Milgram was trying to prove a point that shows how far someone will go to be obedient to the authority.
It refers to patterns of attitudes that are considered to be antisocial and criminal by society at large, but are seen as normal or necessary by the subculture or social environment in which they developed” (Babiak & Hare, 2007, p. 26). In other words, sociopath behavior is a condition of learning and environment. Additionally, a sociopath may have the ability to empathize and have a developed conscience (Babiak & Hare, 2007). On the other hand, a psychopath’s diagnosis may be more neurologically based and are lacking in a conscience. Diagnosing Psychopathy The most frequently used diagnostic tool for determining psychopathy is the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R).
Albert Bandura-Social Learning Jeffrey T Vaughan Liberty University Abstract The social learning theory that has been proposed by Albert Bandura had become the most interesting and influential theory when it comes to learning and development. Because of the theories of a traditional learning model, he wanted to show that direct reinforcement could not encompass the total aspect learning. His theory also shows that by adding the social aspect of the elements, states that we as humans can indeed learn from each other. "Learning would be exceedingly laborious, not to mention hazardous, if people had to rely solely on the effects of their own actions to inform them what to do. Fortunately, most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as a guide for action."
Reinforcement is used to help increase the probability that a specific behavior will occur in the future by delivering a stimulus immediately after a response or behavior is exhibited Each category has benefits when appropriately used, but can easy turn into abuse or neglect. Three major types of reinforcement are physical, verbal, and resource driven, each can be manipulated into positive or negative. In today’s society is it frowned upon to physically discipline your children, either spanking or smacking. It is viewed as a barbaric action. However unpopular it is, distinct differences can be observed between children who have been physically negatively reinforced and those who have not.
This stage is where a child must learn and accept what is and is not allowed and that some of the things that are not allowed could result in a punishment. When children are given the opportunity to use their initiative, for example, by making up a game, greater feelings of security are introduced with their ability to lead others and their sense of initiative is boosted. A dismissive or over controlling attitude or criticism from a carer could cause the child to become under the impression that they are a nuisance to others, making them feel embarrassed and causing them to lack self initiative. During this stage, children tend to ask many questions as they exercise interest and become more curious about their world. If negative responses towards the child’s questions are shown from the parents or carer, then the child may begin to develop feelings of guilt for showing an interest.
If children do not trust people then the will mistrust them thus leading to personality problems and classroom problems. The second stage of Erikson’s personal development is Autonomy is pride in one’s self and when a person has pride in their self they can accomplish anything. Also in stage two if the child does not have autonomy they may develop low self-esteem and have an urge to manipulate his or herself. Children with autonomy still have pride in themselves when they fail because they have done all that they can do. As a parent and teacher we have to make sure that we push children to their limit and make sure that we award them too.
This assumption is further researched by the Bandura bobo doll experiment which studies if aggression behaviour is imitated by seeing a model being rewarded for being aggressive. Bandura found out that the children who had had observed an adult behaving aggressively behaved much more aggressively themselves than those who had observed non obsessive behaviour. They also found out that boys behaved more aggressively than girls and behaviour is most likely to be learned from a same sex model. The strengths of this experiment is that they used children because they are easier to influence so therefore it is easy for them t imitate behaviour. The limitations of this experiment is that the children did not know the models