Harvard Citation Essay

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1 Introduction This guide provides practical advice and examples to help you create references for information sources using the Open University (OU) Harvard style. Some OU modules may use other referencing styles. Please check the details for your module before using this guide. Note: this guide was revised in September 2012. Some of the advice on formatting references has been updated and will differ from earlier versions. If your module materials ask you to reference OU module materials in a different way, please follow your module’s guidance. If you are unsure, contact your tutor. If you are unable to find the reference type you need in this guide, you are advised to find something similar and base your reference on that example. The main aim is to record the key information about your source to enable someone else to locate it. See the Library FAQ (http://www.open.ac.uk/library/i-cannot-find-the-reference-type-i-need/) for more guidance. 1.1 Principles of in-text citations and references When producing an academic assignment you are required to acknowledge the work of others by citing references in the text and creating a list of references or bibliography at the end. There are two steps involved: Step 1: In-text citations In-text citations enable you to indicate in your work where you have used ideas or material from other sources. Here are some examples using the OU Harvard style. If, for example, your source is a book written by Brown and published in 1999, your in-text references would follow one of these three formats: • Further work (Brown, 1999) supports this claim. • Further work by Brown (1999) supports this claim. • ‘This theory is supported by recent work’ (Brown, 1999, p. 25). For further guidance see In-text citations (Section 2) of this guide. Step 2: List full references at the end of your work Everything you have cited in the text

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