Bipolar I Disorder and the Diathesis-Stress Model Abnormal Psychology December 5, 2011 Professor James Morley People experience a wide range of emotions throughout ones life; it is simply a part of human nature. Feelings of depression, elevated levels of anxiety, and reckless behavior, are in fact, normal in brief stints, as it would be considerably unhealthy to stifle such emotions. However, in some instances “such moods swings become so prolonged and extreme that the person’s life is seriously disrupted” (Alloy, Manos, Riskind, 2005, p. 246). This is when a disorder becomes categorized as an illness, rather than simply the stresses of everyday life. Bipolar disorder is a mental illness that involves both manic and depressive episodes.
A lot of the time a person with social anxiety may have trouble falling asleep due to the stress of an upcoming social event. Having bad sleeping patterns such as these can wear a person’s body down and create serious health problems (Denkmire and Perritano 7). Individuals with social phobia tend to over analyze or over think simple situations which can cause a large amount of stress when done every day. Heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure are a few serious side effects associated with the stress that accompanies social anxiety. Social anxiety increases a person’s chances of developing high blood pressure.
Women’s fear comes mostly from their vulnerability to sexual aggression; women are ten times more likely to be sexually assaulted than are men (Crowell & Burgess, 1996). Women are born with this fear. Parents, peers and media reinforce fear toward women into thinking that they’re vulnerable for an attack if they go out alone at night. Another suggestion why women are more fearful is irrationality, great concern for their children which ignites fear and less control over public and private spaces than men (Gilchrist, et al. 1988).
Discuss the relationship between stress, anxiety, habits and phobias and Describe How You Would Treat these Issues with Hypnotherapy First of all let’s look at what stress, anxiety, habits and phobias are. Stress and anxiety are often thrown together to mean the same thing, almost into one phrase. However there is a distinction between the two but it is quite important to be able to let the difference. Stress is a response to an external stimulant, resulting in feelings of frustration, anger and apprehensiveness. Stress is however a reaction to outside pressures.
Hypochondriasis is so overwhelming that it causes problems with work or relationships in one’s life and if it is severe it can be completely disabling. It is similarly common in women, men and even in children as well but is usually seen in people aged between 20 and 30 years old. Emotionally the symptoms are measured by anger or an expression of guilt as a result anxiety and distress coexist with hypochondriasis. On the behavioural aspect symptoms are to play sick which helps to escape from obligations and postpone unwelcome challenges. Signs of health anxiety have little inclination to an impulsive solution and will continue for months or years if treatment is not offered.
SANE Australia (2012) describes depression as the one of the persistent feelings of sadness which all of us experience at various stages of our lives, but others feel on a regular basis. There are a variety of symptoms of depression that can affect everyone in different ways, these may include: the feeling of extremely sad or tearful; loss of sleep; losing interest and motivation in everyday activities; feeling guilty or no good; losing pleasure in activities; anxiety; changes in weight; loss of sexual interest; aches and pains; impaired thinking or loss of concentration (SANE Australia, 2012). Clinical depression is a serious medical illness that negatively affects how you think, the way you feel and how you behave. Individuals with clinical depression are unable to function and participate in activities as they used to. Often they lose interest in everyday activities that were once enjoyable to them, and feel sad and hopeless for extended periods of time, for no apparent or obvious reason (SANE, Australia, 2012).
Symptoms of mania associated with bipolar are mood changes and behavioral changes. Some examples of the mood changes are long periods of being overly happy or outgoing and extremely irritable mood or feeling jumpy. Some examples of the behavioral changes are having racing thoughts, easily distracted, being restless, insomnia, and indulging in high risk behaviors. There are also mood changes and behavioral changes associated with depressive episodes in people with bipolar. Some examples of these mood changes are long periods of feeling empty and loss of interest in activities that you once enjoyed.
Common short term effects are the constriction of pupils, drowsiness, apathy, slow breathing and dilation of blood vessels. Confusion and a persistent itching sensation can be effects too. Such slow breathing may cause a user to slip into a coma as well as nerve damage from convulsions. After using this drug, users usually get addicted to the euphoric feeling and go from inhaling to injection. Users build up a tolerance and give way to a physical dependency upon the drug, making the addict need larger and larger doses.
The person may suffer with responses that are un appropriate in certain situations as well as the usual signs (rapid heartbeat, sweating and nervousness. Anxiety disorders include post-traumatic stress, obsessive compulsive disorder and phobias. Psychotic disorders - involve distorted awareness and thinking. People experience images and sounds that are not real. The ill people believe they are true despite being shown evidence.
Conflicts between the id, ego and superego create anxiety. The ego protects itself with ego defences (Sammons, 2009, pg, 31). These defences can be the cause of disturbed behaviour if they are over used which seem to be the case with Suzy. In Suzy’s case,