The weakness of Virtue Ethics outweighs its strengths – Discuss. Virtue ethics is the ethics of us as persons and argues that morality is not about duties. There are a number of arguments for and against virtue ethics, and most for, argue for the formation and growth of us via phronesis or practical wisdom, which allows us to make the right decisions by using our conscience. Virtue ethics is mainly supported by Aristotle. It is based on different virtues that a person should have, so that they can then reach Euadamonia.
Epicurus fails to define the boundaries of moral virtue, merely stating there could be harmful consequences without specific definition, Epicurus ultimately fails to develop a strong moral program. Aristotle questions the morality of pleasure and peoples’ intentions. He insists that there are other pleasures besides those of the senses, and that the best pleasures are the ones experienced by virtuous people who have sufficient resources for excellent activity such as the “man who has been educated in a subject and there for her is a good judge of that subject” (25). The philosopher states that pleasure is not to be desired for its own sake but rather that it stimulate the action of a healthy nature. He specifically argues that, “happiness must be explained in terms of reason…happiness depends on the actualization—the full realization—of one’s rationality” (22).
It is agreed by the masses that happiness is associated with living well. “For happiness we always desire for its own sake and never as a means of something else(p. 392).” The purpose of happiness is not to gain anything, but to seek for the sake of being happy. All actions focus primarily on the achievement of happiness; honor, pleasure, and intelligence may seem like they are desired as means to themselves, but all amount in an achievement of some kind of happiness. There are two different kinds of virtues: intellectual, which is taught directly, and moral, which is gained through self-experience. Aristotle views virtues as “traits that enable us to live well in communities(p. 389)” He holds the better good of the community higher than that of the individual.
This same idea was one of the main Greek principles in life. They strived for progress, knowledge and harmony among their citizens. Plato’s writings examined justice, beauty, and equality. Only a moral person can be truly happy, when a certain level of inner harmony is reached, the soul fulfills its proper functions. But what does that exactly mean?
Since Aristotle’s main contribution was on happiness, virtues, deliberation, justice and friendship. Illuminating the relations among these definitions will help us understand Aristotle’s ideas on civic relationship. In order to clarify Aristotle’s ideas on civic relationships, first of all, we need to know the purpose of a political community. According to Aristotle, The purpose of a political community is pursuing human happiness, i.e. best life.
Another supporting argument of Ethical Egoism is that we always do what we most want to do. Also we do what makes us feel good. In addition, we do things for others to ultimately benefit ourselves. Lastly, it is better to look out for oneself and not interfere with others lives, which sometimes can cause robbery of other’s dignity and self respect. There also are arguments against Ethical Egoism.
In this sense, the virtue of the ancients was amoral. Consequently, their conception of happiness was functional as well: But presumably to say that happiness is the supreme good seems a platitude, and some more distinctive account of it is still required. This might perhaps be achieved by grasping what is the function of man. If we take a flautist or a sculptor or any artist his goodness and proficiency is considered to lie in the performance of that function; and the same will be true of man, assuming that man has a function. (Nicomachean Ethics, 1097b) Aristotle inherited this functional sense of happiness, or eudaimonia.
Under- indulging Has Its Benefits Under- indulging, the word doesn’t exist has its own importance in people’s life. Under- indulging means under satisfactory of something. Under- indulging has its own benefits like understanding the value of our own needs, importance of hard work to satisfy our needs, and happiness after satisfying our needs. When we don’t have something special, which we want so preciously in our life, we can understand value of that special thing. As an example, if one person has everything he wants, he couldn’t understand the value of precious things because he has it already and he hasn’t faced lack of satisfaction.
Introduction Plato’s point of view about happiness is clearly seen mostly in his Middle Dialogues. One of his central claims which is expressed in his play The Republic is that justice is not only desirable for its own sake, but that it actually maximizes the happiness of those who practice it. This essay will examine Plato’s arguments in support of this thesis, firstly to determine what he means by happiness, to what extent it exists in his proposed ideal state, and whether this in any way supports his claims about the benefits of justice. In particular, I will argue that there are two different conceptions of happiness at his play The Republic , and two methods of achieving its highest form, namely justice and philosophy, before arriving at a final definition of the Platonic ‘form’ of happiness – a matter that Plato touches on only briefly in the text, but that is nevertheless central to his thinking on the subject. Happiness and Pleasure The first and most important question that must be asked is what does Plato mean by happiness?
The influence is one-way, from Form of the good to the rulers and then to the ruled. Since the destiny of the state relies completely on the rulers, it is most important that the right rulers are selected. This is realized through the other important feature which is the education system. The education system of Plato's state aims at molding people's character and instilling moral values that is good for the stability and unity of the state (Annas1982:82). "[T]his stage of education is crucial.